Cannabis sativa L. - Botany and Biotechnology
Originally Posted by flylowgethigh
Ain't you got nuthin better to say?
How about 'splainin what's the chemical difference between a pure Sative and an Indica. What different parts of the brain are being affected, that Indica isn't reaching? Does CBD have to be in the equation? That would be interesting material.
by Chandra, Lata, and ElSohly
"Sativa-type" and "Indica-type" Marijuana Plants
Beginning with the rise of marijuana as the leading illicit counterculture drug in the 1960's and persisting to the present day with marijuana strains being marketed in the quasi-legal and legal medicinal markets, there has been a fundamental confusion in much of the popular literature over what the terms "sativa" and "indica" designate. Taxonomists have utilized the epithets sativa and indica to distinguish two taxa (taxonomic groups), the term sativa traditionally designating non-intoxicating hemp plants.
THe marijuana trade, however, routinely uses both "sativa" and "indica" as labels for different classes of marijuana plants, and (contradictory to taxonomic tradition) employs the term sativa to designate plants with more intoxicating potential (i.e. very high THC content, but low or no CBD content) and the term india to designate plants with less but still substantial intoxicating potential (i.e. moderate THC content and moderate CBD content).
Unfortunately the misleading usage of the terms sativa and indica have become so established in popular langage that it is futile to attempt to correct the situation. In this chapter, the phrases "sativa-type" and "indica-type" are employed to denote the popular, albeit misleading usages.
"Sativa-type" and "indica-type" (the inappropriateness of these entrenched labels is pointed out above) represents two discernibly different groups of high-THC cannabis plants domesticated in Asia.
The ancient distribution of these is shown in Fig. 1.7, where it is noted that the indica-type probably arose from the sativa-type.
The much more popular sativa-type has been distributed in much of the world, and extensive hybrids have been generated between the two kinds. Table 1.1 summarizes differences that have been alleged to distinguish the two kinds (no adequate statistically based study of differences has been published, and since hybrids between the two kinds dominate strains of marijuana currently grown, the two kinds are best considered as polar extremes connected by a continuous spectrum of intermediate forms).
Strains of the sativa-type are characteristically tall and well branched in good growing conditions and tend to have relatively narrow leaflets. Sativa-type strains are extremely widespread in the illicit trade of Western nations Indica strains tend to be short (about a meter in height) and compact, especially under the often inhospitable conditions under which they are typically grown in Asia.
THey have large leaves and wide leaflets. THe appearance is often reminiscent of a miniature conical Christmas tree. THe different appearances of the two types are contrasted in Fig. 1.6 As detailed above, modern oilseed cultivars are short and compact, this architecture reducing diversion of energy into stem production and increasing harvest index (efficiency of production of the desired product), and it is probable that the architecture of indica-type C. sativa is comparably desirable, but from the point of view of production of THC rather than seeds.
There are varying descriptions in the literature about the contrasting psychological effects of indica and sativa strains (see, for example, Hazekamp and Fischedick 2012) and Smith (2012). THese descriptions generally credit the high-THC sativa type with producing a more euphoric "high" and the lower-THC indica-type with substantial CBD with producing a more subdued but attenuated (longer-lasting) experience, consistent not just with the lower THC content but more particularly with how CBD in marijuana substantially alters the effects of THC. Erkelens and Hazekamp (2014) summarized the alleged effects as follows: "The sativa high is often characterized as uplifting and energetic. The effects are mostly cerebral (head-high), also described as spacey or hallucinogenic. This type gives a feeling of optimism and wellbeing, as well as providing a good measure of pain relief for certain symptoms... Sativa strains are generally considered a good choice for daytime smoking. In contrast, the indica high is most often described as a pleasant body buzz (body-high). Indica strains are primarily enjoyed for relaxation, stress relief, and for overall sense of calm and serenity. They are supposedly effective for overall body pain relief, and most often used in the treatment of insomnia; they are the late-evening choice of many smokers as an aid for uninterrupted sleep."
Table 1.1 lists Sativa-types as: Widespread (southern Asia), relatively long (late maturing), often in semi-tropical regions, relatively tall (2-4 m), diffusely branched (longer internodes); less dense, more elongated "buds", narrow leaflets, lighter green leaves, relatively late maturation, relatively pleasant aroma (often described as "sweet"), variable ease of detachment of heads from secretory glands, little or no CBD, and relatively euphoric: a "cerebral high" promoting energy and creative thought (occasionally panic attacks in inexperienced users, or a drained feeling)
Table 1.1 lists Indica-types as: Restricted (Afghanistan, Pakistan, northwest India, Relatively short (early-maturing), adapted to relatively cool, arid regions, relatively short (1-2 m), bushy (short internodes), often conical; very dense, more compact "buds", broad leaflets, dark green leaves, relatively early maturation, relatively poorer aroma (sometimes described as "sour" and "acrid", easily detached heads from secretory glands, substantial CBD, and relatively sedative: physically relaxing, producing lethargy.
I kinda hate how they continually say marijuana but all things considered a pretty decent resource. The book suggests that CBD is definetly in the equation of classification of cannabis in relation to agricultural, biotechnological, medical, and recreational utilization.