Characterizing the Smell of Marijuana by Odor Impact of Volatile Compounds: An Application of Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis
Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel
Published: December 10, 2015
Recent US legislation permitting recreational use of marijuana in certain states brings the use of marijuana odor as probable cause for search and seizure to the forefront of forensic science, once again. This study showed the use of solid-phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and simultaneous human olfaction to characterize the total aroma of marijuana. The application of odor activity analysis offers an explanation as to why high volatile chemical concentration does not equate to most potent odor impact of a certain compound. This suggests that more attention should be focused on highly odorous compounds typically present in low concentrations, such as nonanal, decanol, o-cymene, benzaldehyde, which have more potent odor impact than previously reported marijuana headspace volatiles.
Chemotyping and Determination of Antimicrobial, Insecticidal, and Cytotoxic Properties of Wild-Grown Cannabis sativa from Nepal
Prabodh Satyal, William N. Setzer
Journal of Medicinally Active Plants 3, (1):9-16 2014
Cannabis sativa was collected from a wildgrowing population in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 107 constituents were identified in the oil accounting for 94.2% of the composition. This Nepalese chemotype is characterized by a predominance of sesquiterpenoids (68.1%) dominated by (E)-caryophyllene (20.4%), α-humulene (7.0%), and α-bisabolol (5.8%), but a paucity of monoterpene hydrocarbons (0.9%). In particular, neither myrcene nor terpinolene were detected. The oil in the Nepalese Cannabis plants did contain small amounts of cannabidiol (1.6%), cannabichromene (0.2%) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (0.4%). The essential oil from Nepalese Cannabis sativa was screened for antimicrobial, cytotoxic, larvicidal, and insecticidal activity, and it appears as though C. sativa is relatively non-toxic.
Optimisation and characterisation of marihuana extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and focused ultrasound extraction and retention time locking GC-MS
Jone Omar, Maitane Olivares, Mikel Alzaga, Nestor Etxebarria
J. Sep. Sci. 2013, 36, 1397–1404
The optimisation of focused ultrasound extraction and supercritical fluid extraction of volatile oils and cannabinoids from marihuana has been accomplished by experimental design approach. On the one hand, the focused ultrasound extraction method of volatile compounds and cannabinoids was studied based on the optimisation of cyclohexane and isopropanol solvent mixtures, and the instrumental variables. The optimal working conditions were finally fixed at isopropanol/cyclohexane 1:1 mixture, cycles (3 s−1), amplitude (80%) and sonication time (5 min). On the other hand, the supercritical fluid extraction method was optimised in order to obtain a deterpenation of the plant and a subsequent cannabinoid extraction. For this purpose, pressure, temperature, flow and co-solvent percentage were optimised and the optimal working conditions were set at 100 bar, 35C, 1 mL/min, no co-solvent for the terpenes and 20% of ethanol for the cannabinoids. Based on the retention time locking GC-MS analysis of the supercritical fluid extracts the classification of the samples according to the type of plant, the growing area and season was attained. Finally, three monoterpenes and three cannabinoids were quantified in the ranges of 0.006–6.2 g/g and 0.96–324 mg/g, respectively.
Separation of aroma compounds from industrial hemp inflorescences (Cannabis sativa L.) by supercritical CO2 extraction and on-line fractionation
Carla Da Porto, Deborha Decorti, Andrea Natolino
Industrial Crops and Products 58 (2014) 99–103
The use of supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) extraction at 10 and 14 MPa and 40◦C and on-line frac-tionation using two separators (Sep 1: 7 MPa/25◦C; Sep2: 5 MPa/15◦C) to recovery volatile compoundsfrom the inflorescences of fiber type Cannabis sativa L. was investigated by HS-SPME/GC–MS and direct GC–MS and compared with hydrodistillation. The best results were obtained by Sc-CO2extraction car-ried out at 10 MPa and 40◦C. Under these operating conditions, cuticular waxes covering the surface offlowers were collected in the first separator and volatile compounds (100%) in the second. The superiorquality of this last extract was proved by the perfect overlapping of its HS-SPME/GC–MS volatile profileto that of inflorescences. The recovery of fractions with different composition and biological properties,made the inflorescences of fiber type Cannabis sativa L suitable for cosmetic and/or food industry.
Fibre hemp inflorescences: From crop-residues to essential oil production
Alessandra Bertoli, Sabrina Tozzi, Luisa Pistelli, Luciana G. Angelini
Industrial Crops and Products 32 (2010) 329–337
The volatile composition of ten fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties was investigated during two successive growing seasons under temperate climatic conditions in Central Italy.
The freshly plant inflorescences were hydrodistilled and the essential oils (EOs) were characterized by GC–MS. In addition, the composition of the aroma emitted spontaneously from the freshly plant inflorescences were analysed by SPME-GC–MS. The EO yields of eight dioecious (Carmagnola, C.S., Red Petiole, Pop 1, Pop 2, Pop 3, Pop 4, Pop 5) and two monoecious (Codimono and Felina 34) cultivars ranged from 0.11 to 0.25% (w/w) and showed a significant production of a-pinene (3–20%), b-pinene (1–8%), E-ocimene (1–10%), myrcene (8–45%) and terpinolene (0.12–22%).
The monoterpene composition was useful to distinguish the monoecious cultivars from the dioecious ones. b-Caryophyllene (7–28%), a-humulene (3–12%), and caryophyllene oxide (2–6%) were the main sesquiterpenes. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was present in traces in the EOs of only two dioecious cultivars cultivated in 2005. Cannabinol (CBN) was not detected in the essential oils, while the no-hallucinogenous cannabidiol (CBD) was found as typical volatile constituent in several analysed cultivars. These findings were also confirmed by the headspace GC–MS analysis carried out on the same samples. The analysed EOs obtained from fibre hemp varieties cultivated in Central Italy were characterized by an interesting and specific terpene composition with a legal and safe cannabinoid content. They were obtained from freshly plant inflorescences, which usually represent a waste material from C. sativa L. fibre varieties. The present study strengths the hypothesis to grow hemp as a multi-use crop through a complete utilization of the plant material using inflorescences to produce essential oils as natural flavour and fragrance additives.
Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS SPME) Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometric Analysis of the Volatile Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. From Kashmir
Manzoor A. Rather, Bilal A. Dar, Shahnawaz N. Sofi, Tauheeda Hassan, Nasir Ali, Ashiq H. Lone, Abdul S. Shawl, Wajahat A. Shah, M. A. Qurishi and Poonam Prakash
Journal of Pharmacy Research 2011,4(8),2651-2653
Headspace Solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used to isolate and identify the volatile compounds from the leaves of Cannabis sativa growing in Kashmir. The analysis led to the identification of 17 volatile components constituting 94.8 % of the total identified components. The chemical composition of the SPME extract from the leaves of C. sativa comprised mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (64.3%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (18.4%) and alcohols (10.3%). The major components identified in the HS-SPME extract were trans-caryophyllene (36.9%), a-humulene (16.2%), a-pinene (10.7%), 3-hexen-1-ol-acetate (6.2%) and ß-pinene (4.2%). The current study is the first report involving rapid analysis of volatile components of C. sativa by HS-SPME.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction of volatile compounds from industrial Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences
Da Porto C, Decorti D, Natolino A
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products
2014 Vol. 7 (1), pp. 8-14
This study investigated the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to recovery volatile compounds from the inflorescences of a fiber type Cannabis sativa L. cultivar. The results show that ultrasonic treatment not longer than 5 min allows to obtain an enhanced concentration of terpenes in comparison with maceration. Instead, an ultrasonic treatment longer than 5 min increased the concentration of δ-9-tetraidrocannabinol (THC). A preliminary screening of cannabis inflorescences scent was performed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) avoiding the chemical modification and artifact formation that can occur in conventional methods.