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Old 08-03-2004, 08:39 PM #1
I.M. Boggled
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Post Basic Lighting Terminology and Definitions

AVERAGE LIFE - The life expectancy of a lamp, based on laboratory
tests.

AMPERE (AMP) - The unit used to measure the strength of an electric current.

ARC - The luminous discharge of electricity between two electrodes in HID lighting.

ARC DISCHARGE - A transfer of electricity across two electrodes (anode and cathode), characterized by high electrode current densities and a low voltage drop at the electrode.

ARC TUBE - The enclosure which contains the luminous gases and also houses the arc.

BALLAST - An auxiliary piece of equipment designed to start and to properly control the flow of power to gas discharge light sources such as fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamps. In metal halide systems, it is composed of the transformer, capacitor and connecting wiring; sodium systems require an ignitor in addition to the transformer and capacitor.


BASE - The end of the lamp that inserts into the lamp socket.

BU - An industry code indicating that the bulb is to be operated only in a base up position.

BULB - The glass outer envelope component of an HID lamp which protects the arc tube.

BURNING POSITION - The position in which a lamp is designed to be
operated.

CAPACITOR - An electronic device that can store electrical charge. The capacitor is one of the main components of an HID lighting ballast. Because they can store a very strong electrical charge, capacitors can be very dangerous to someone who is unaware of this fact and opens a ballast in order to examine or repair it. If one does not know how to safely discharge the stored electricity, one should allow a trained technician to do any ballast repairs.

COLD START TIME - The length of time required to bring an HID lamp to 90% light output from a cold condition.

COLOUR TEMPERATURE or KELVIN TEMPERATURE - The unit of measurement to express the colour (spectrum) of light emitted by a lamp.

CONVERSION BULB - A bulb of a certain spectrum type (e.g. sodium) specially designed to operate while used in the fixture/ballast of a different type (e.g. metal halide). The most popular conversion bulbs by far are sodium conversion bulbs, which allow one to have the sodium spectrum while still using a metal halide system.

DOME - The portion of an HID outer bulb located opposite base (the neck and threads).

DOME SUPPORT - The spring-like brackets which mount the arc tube within the outer envelope (bulb).

DISCHARGE LAMP - A lamp that produces light by discharging an electric arc through a mixture of gases and gaseous metals.

ELECTRODES - Filaments located at either end of a discharge lamp that maintain an electrical arc between them.

FIXTURE - The electrical fitting used to contain the electric components of a lighting system.

FLUORESCENT LAMP - A discharge lamp in which a phosphor coating transforms ultraviolet energy into visible light. Fluorescent lamps are good for starting seedlings and rooting cuttings...

FREQUENCY - The number of waves or cycles of electromagnetic radiation per second, usually measured in Hertz (Hz).

HALOGEN LAMP - A short name for the tungsten-halogen lamp. Halogen lamps are high pressure incandescent lamps containing halogen gases such as iodine or bromine which allow the filaments to be operated at higher temperatures and higher efficacies...halogen lamps are not effective or efficient as grow lights due to their very poor spectrum (extreme far red) and high operating temperatures.

(HID) HIGH-INTENSITY DISCHARGE LAMP - A general term for mercury, metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps. HID lamps contain compact arc tubes which enclose various gases and metal salts operating at relatively high pressures and temperatures.

(HPS) HIGH-PRESSURE SODIUM LAMP - High-pressure sodium lamps operate by igniting sodium, mercury and xenon gases within a sealed ceramic arc tube. Sodium lamps emit light energy in the yellow/red/orange regions of the spectrum; the red spectrum stimulates flowering and fruit production.

HOOD - The reflective cover used in conjunction with an HID lamp. The more reflectivity a hood can provide, the more effective it is.

HOR - An industry code indicating that the bulb is to be operated in a horizontal position.

HOT SPOT (in this case relative to bulb and not reflective material) - The area immediately under an HID lamp where the light intensity is strongest, hot spots cause uneven growth, but can be remedied by using light movers or air-cooling the encased hood.

HOT START TIME - The length of time required to bring an HID lamp to 90% light output after a short power interruption.

IGNITOR - A component of the ballast necessary for the starting of the bulb in sodium systems.

INCANDESCENT LAMP - A light source which generates light utilizing a thin filament wire (usually of tungsten) heated to white heat by an electric current passing through it. Incandescent lamps are the most familiar type of light source, with countless application in homes, stores and other commercial settings. Light is produced by passing electric current through a thin wire filament, usually a tungsten.

INTENSITY - A term referring to the magnitude of light energy per unit; light intensity diminishes evenly as you get further from the source.

KELVIN TEMPERATURE (K) - The unit of measurement to express the colour (spectrum) of light emitted by a lamp; the absolute temperature of a blackbody radiator having a chromaticity equal to that of the light source. A standard clear metal halide HID lamp has an average Kelvin temperature rating of 4,000K.

KILOWATT (kW) - A unit of electric power usage equal to 1,000 watts.

KILOWATT HOUR (kWh) - A measurement of electric energy. A kilowatt hour is equal to 1,000 watts of power used over a period of one hour.

LAMP - An electrically energized source of light, commonly called a bulb or tube.

LAMP LIFE - A measure of lamp performance, as measured in median hours of burning time under ANSI test conditions.

LAMP DEPRECIATION (LD) - The decrease over time of lamp output, caused by bulb wall blackening, phosphor exhaustion, filament depreciation, and other factors.

LAMP STARTING - Generic term used to describe a discharge lamp's starting characteristics in terms of time to come to full output, flicker, etc.

LIGHT MOVER - A motorized device which moves an HID lamp back and forth across the ceiling of a grow room to provide more even distribution of the light and reduce hotspots.

LUMEN - A measurement of light output; relative to human perception
which refers to the amount of light emitted by one candle that falls on one square foot of surface located at a distance of one foot from the candle.

LUMINAIRE - A complete lighting unit, consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the components required to distribute the light, position the lamps, and connect the lamps to a power supply. Often referred to as a "fixture."

(MH) METAL HALIDE LAMP - A high-intensity-discharge lamp in which the light is produced by arcing electricity through a mixture of metal halides. The light produced by metal halide lamps is in the white-blue spectrum, which encourages vegetative growth and "bushiness" while discouraging upward growth. This is the bulb to use in the first, vegetative phase of plant growth.

(MV) MERCURY VAPOUR LAMPS - The oldest member of the HID family, mercury vapour lamps work by arcing electricity through mercury vapour. ...mercury vapour lamps are the least effective of the entire HID family. This, combined with an improper colour spectrum for horticultural applications, makes mercury vapour lamps a poor choice for a grow light.

MOG - Mogul base.

MOL - Maximum overall length of a lamp, from the tip of the base to the top of the bulb.

NECK - The narrow, tubular end of the HID bulb, attached to the threads.

PARABOLIC REFLECTOR - A lighting distribution control device that is designed to redirect the light from an HID lamp in a specific direction. In most applications, the parabolic device directs light down and away from the direct glare zone.

PHOTOPERIOD - The relative periods of light and dark periods within a 24-period. Also referred to as day length.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS - The growth process by which plants build chemical compounds (carbohydrates) from light energy, water and CO2 (carbon dioxide).

PHOTOTROPISM - The gravitation of a plant part toward a light source.

REFLECTOR - The term sometimes used to refer to the reflective hood of an HID lamp.

REFLECTIVITY - The measure of the reflective quality of a surface; the relative ability of a given surface to reflect light away from it without absorbing, diffusing or otherwise compromising the light’s quality, intensity and spectrum.

SOCKET - The threaded, wired receptacle that an HID bulb screws into.

SON-AGRO - A sodium bulb which, according to the manufacturer, produces 30% more blue light than standard sodium bulbs. The 430-watt SON AGRO also emits 6% more light than the standard 400-watt sodium lamp.

SPECULA REFLECTION - The redirection of incident light without diffusion at an angle that is equal to and in the same plane as the angle of incidence. The secular inserts included in Hydrofarm’s HID lighting systems work on this principle.

TRANSFORMER - The component in the ballast that transforms electric current from one voltage to another.

U (for UNIVERSAL) - An industry code indicating that the bulb can be operated in any position: horizontal, vertical (base up) or any other.

ULTRAVIOLET (UV) LIGHT - Light with very short wavelengths, out of the visible spectrum.

WATT(W) - A unit used to measure electric power. One watt equals one joule/second.

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Old 08-03-2004, 09:05 PM #2
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Post Color Temperature definitions

The color of a light source entails a complicated relationship of different factors, that are important in determining the right light source for your garden.
The advantage of Metal Halide lamps is that they provide high-quality, crisp white light in a variety of different color temperatures that meet the needs of many different users.

Correlated Color Temperature(CCT):
Color temperature is a measure of the color appearance of light not the actual temperature.
..Light sources that appear bright white to blue-white have a high color temperature (3600K and above) and are described as "cool".
..Sources that appear yellow-white to red-white have a low color temperature (3400K and below) and are described as "warm".
..Daylight is considered to be around 5500K and plants grown under this light do quite well.

Spectral Energy Distribution:
When you look at a light source, you perceive seeing a single color, but you are actually seeing thousands of hues. The combinations of different wavelengths of light make up the color we see. The relative intensity of the various wavelengths are used to determine a light source's Color Rendering Index(CRI).


Color Rendering Index(CRI):
The CRI is an indication of a lamps ability to show individual colors relative to a standard. This value is determined from a comparison of the lamp's spectral distribution compared to a black body at the same color temperature. Light sources, such as metal halide lamps, are rated with a CCT; however, CCT does not provide any information on the quality of the color. For this, a CRI is also necessary. In general, the higher the CRI rating of a lamp, the better the different colors will show.


5K - 7K Kelvin: Strong Blue Light
Promotes bushy growth. Ideal for rapid growth phase of plants.
Greatly enhances all-around plant growth when used with super high output, high pressure sodium or 3K warm metal halide lamps.

4.2K - 4200 Kelvin: Cool white Flourescents: Can be used as a supplemental blue lighting when used with a 3K source.

4K - 4000 Kelvin: Neutral Metal Halide:
Best single source for plant growth, producing shorter, bushier growth than 3700 Kelvin and color rendition. Used in general plant lighting.

3.7K - 3700 Kelvin: Softer Metal Halide(coated): This coated lamp is used in general plant lighting and for more rapid growth than 4000 Kelvin produces.

3K - 3200 Kelvin: Warm Metal Halide:
Highest photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) value of all HID
lighting for all phases of plant growth. PAR watts account for the nutritional value of light and are a direct measure of the light energy available for photosythesis.

2.7K - 2700 Kelvin: High Pressure Sodium Lamps:
Redder color mix, used for propagation, blooming, supplemental
greenhouse lighting.

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Old 08-03-2004, 09:06 PM #3
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Yah but you missed one. How BRIGHT is it? If you ever wanna mess with your Hydro store guy go in there and keep asking him how bright is it tho? Sorry just thread hopping carry on.

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Old 08-03-2004, 09:34 PM #4
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Isnt that like taking your car to the dealership for the to refill your blinker fluid?

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Old 08-03-2004, 09:48 PM #5
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Quote:
Originally posted by Blatant
Yah but you missed one. How BRIGHT is it? If you ever wanna mess with your Hydro store guy go in there and keep asking him how bright is it tho? Sorry just thread hopping carry on.
Quote:
Originally posted by KRS Juan
Isnt that like taking your car to the dealership for the to refill your blinker fluid?
LOL...

IM Boggled... Pay no mind to the jokesters! They're just hav'n some fun. What you are developing here is an excellent resource! Very, very useful!

I know I had to read, and re-read several FAQs, etc., before I even started to grasp all that you are presenting so succinctly!

Thanx!
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Old 08-03-2004, 10:50 PM #6
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Re: Color Temperature definitions

Quote:
Originally posted by I.M. Boggled

PAR watts account for the nutritional value of light and are a direct measure of the light energy available for photosythesis.

[/b]
That's the absolute best description of PAR I've heard. Stick PAR with the other definitions up top. Great thread I.M. Boggled.
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Old 08-03-2004, 11:50 PM #7
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Nice Info

Nice info. I, for one, appreciate your time and effort.


Later

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Old 08-04-2004, 12:15 AM #8
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nice info
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[tokinsmokin] WOW how the hell do u know this
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[tokinsmokin]ur blowing my mind here dude this is some fuckin technical shit ur tellin me
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[tokinsmokin]alright ur a genius
[tokinsmokin]u kind of scare me here man, u answer pretty much every question i've had so far and not only answer it but answer it with the correct answer
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Old 08-04-2004, 12:52 AM #9
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Nice thread

Great info here ... just one question though.... does anyone know the average life of a 1000 watt HPS light
thanks
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Old 08-04-2004, 04:09 AM #10
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Babbabud: I have always heard to replace bulbs after 2 to 3 cycles or each year no matter the wattage.

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