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Old 01-20-2012, 02:43 AM #1
joe fresh
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Post Substrate pH: Getting it Right for Your Crops

Neil Mattson

Assistant professor and Floriculture Extension Specialist, Department of Horticulture

Cornell University, 134A Plant Sciences Bldg, Ithaca, NY 14853
pH affects the ability of nutrients to dissolve in water (solubility). The graph below shows nutrient solubility in container media as pH varies from 4 to 8. Solubility is important because roots can only take up nutrients that are dissolved in solution and cannot take up the solid form of the nutrient.


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Problems with Low pH

The micronutrients iron, manganese, zinc, and boron are highly soluble at low pH (pH 5.0-6.0). Therefore, at low pH these nutrients are available and readily taken up by roots. If pH is too low, typically below 5.0 for most plants, the nutrients become so soluble that they may be taken up at harmful or toxic concentrations. A classic symptom of this is iron toxicity which appears as leaf bronzing and chlorosis (yellowing) which appear first on lower leaves (Photograph 1). Certain plants that are especially efficient at taking up iron, such as seed and zonal geraniums and marigolds, can exhibit iron toxicity when pH is below 6.0.



Problems with High pH

At high media pH the low solubility of iron, manganese, zinc, and boron makes these nutrients less available to be taken up by roots and so deficiency symptoms can occur. Certain plants are less efficient at absorbing micronutrients (especially iron and manganese). These plants require a slightly lower pH to be able to absorb enough of these nutrients. A classic example of this is iron deficiency is petunia. Affected plants show yellowing between the veins on the upper leaves (Photograph 2). Often there is enough iron provided in the fertilizer/container media, but the pH is too high for roots to absorb it.


pH Guidelines

Based on the above problems, excessively high and excessively low pH should be avoided. For many plants a pH of 5.5-6.5 typically allows the various mineral nutrients to be absorbed at adequate levels; and not at levels too high that toxicity can result. As stated above, certain plants are more efficient at absorbing iron and other micronutrients. For this group, referred to as the “Iron-Efficient” or Geranium Group the optimal pH is slightly higher (6.0-6.6) so that iron toxicity does not occur. Conversely, Snapdragon, Caibrachoa, and Petunia are considered “Iron Inefficient” and so a lower pH is desired (5.4-6.2) so that enough iron can be absorbed.


Long-Term Monitoring Examples


Sampling container media for pH and EC is most effective when samples are taken periodically during crop production as opposed to measuring at only 1 time point. This allows you to look for trends. If pH or EC begin to creep outside of the preferred range, then action can be taken to bring these under control. For example: Bedding plants were grown with a commercial fertilizer mix at 150 ppm N. The PourThru method was used to measure container media pH. The pH tended to increase over time during the first 28 days, so on day 28 an acidic fertilizer (21-7-7 acid special) was used for 7 days. pH began to creep up again, so on day 58, the acidic fertilizer was used again for another 7 days. (Data from Neil Mattson)


CORRECTING pH

Before we look at specific ways to lower or raise pH of the container medium, we will first look at some factors that affect pH.
The container medium that we use has an initial pH. Acidic media (pH less than 7) include: sphagnum peat, pine bark, coir, and many composts. Neutral media (pH around 7) include: perlite, sand, and polystyrene. Alkaline media (pH greater than 7) include: bark from hardwood trees, vermiculite, rockwool, and rice hulls. Many of our commercial container media mixes are comprised of a combination of peat, perlite/vermiculite, and some may contain bark or sand. These peat-based media are usually quite acidic initially so the manufacturers have added limestone to them to correct for pH. If you mix your own container media you can control the amount of limestone that you add to set your initial pH.


Effect of Water Alkalinity
Most of our water sources naturally contain some impurities in the form of dissolved alkalis: Ca(HCO3)2, NaHCO3, Mg(HCO3)2, CaCO3. These dissolved alkalis tend to raise the pH of the container medium over time. The more often a container is water and the more dissolved alkalis it contains the more the pH will increase over time. Alkalinity is reported in terms of ppm CaCO3 (or meq, in which case: 50 ppm = 1 meqCaCO3). For greenhouse water sources, the alkalinity typically varies from 50 to 500 ppm. A moderate alkalinity (80-120 ppm) is considered optimal as it adds to the buffering capacity of the container medium. If the alkalinity is too low (typically less than 100-120 ppm) then pH fluctuations can occur very quickly. If alkalinity is too high, it can cause container medium pH to rise out of the optimal range.
It is recommended that growers test their water alkalinity once or twice a year. Testing can be done by a qualified nutrient diagnostic laboratory; or home kits are available which will give you the approximate range. If your alkalinity is greater than about 100 ppm you can expect that pH of the container medium will tend to increase over time unless preventative measures are taken such as injecting acid to neutralize the alkalinity or using a more acidic fertilizer. Once you know your water’s alkalinity an Extension Educator or a representative from the diagnostic lab can help you design a fertilizer program or acid injection program to control for pH drift.


Why does pH not equal alkalinity?

To put it simply pH measures the amount of hydrogen ions dissolved in water; while alkalinity measures the amount of dissolved alkalis (carbonates/bicarbonates of calcium, magnesium, or sodium) in the water. Therefore by definition, pH measures one thing, while alkalinity measures another. However, there is some connection between pH and alkalinity because the alkalis in water can react with the hydrogen ions to bring about a rise in pH. The chemical formula for this is: H+ + HCO3-  H2O + CO2 (i.e. the hydrogen ions combine with carbonates to form water and carbon dioxide which is bubbled away). Because of this reaction water with high alkalinity typically has a high pH (7 or above), but water with high pH doesn't always have high alkalinity.
Another reason that alkalinity and not pH is more important for your water source is that the pH in a water sample can rise the longer it is shake around with open air. When a water sample is shake around (or air is bubbled in) some of the oxygen will dissolve in the water which will create some new hydroxyl (OH-) ions which will raise the pH. Conversely if you bubble carbon dioxide into water (from a soda fountain or by blowing into it with a straw) some CO2 will dissolve in water and some carbonic acid (H2CO3) will form. The carbonic acid will decrease the water pH. While this changes pH it has little effect on alkalinity. In the long run, it is your water’s alkalinity that has the most effect on substrate pH changes. The alkalinity in your water can be thought of as liquid limestone, the more you water a pot with alkaline water the more liquid limestone you are adding to that pot and the more you will cause pH to increase.


Injecting Acid

Using a fertilizer injector to add acid to your water directly reduces the alkalinity. A hydrogen ion from the acid will combine with a bicarbonate molecule (from the alkali) to form carbon dioxide and water. (For the chemists: H+ + HCO3-  CO2 + H2O). Different types of acids can be used, including: sulfuric, phosphoric, nitric, and citric. Typically, a grower will add enough acid to reduce the pH of the water to 5.8. The amount of acid that you need to add depends on your water’s alkalinity level. An excellent article with more detailed information is available online at: https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/f...alkalinity.pdf


Selecting a Fertilizer to Correct pH

Plants have the ability to take up several forms of nitrogen (ammonium, nitrate, and urea). Ammonium and urea are acidic forms of nitrogen, meaning they tend to decrease the pH of container medium. Nitrate is a basic form on nitrogen, meaning that it tends to increase the pH of the container medium. Most commercial fertilizer mixes contain a combination of all three forms of nitrogen. The fertilizer label will provide the percentage of each type and will tell you if the net effect is to increase pH or decrease pH; this is reported as the fertilizer’s potential acidity or basicity. The table on the following page lists the potential acidity or basicity of several commercial fertilizers.
High pH can be corrected by switching to a more acidic fertilizer. One example is 21-5-20 fertilizer which has a potential acidity of about 400. In other words, application of one ton of 21-5-20 causes acidification which would require 400 lbs of calcium carbonate limestone to counteract. Similarly, 15-0-15 has 420 lbs of potential basicity and can be used to increase low pH. For crops that are known to have issues with pH decline, using a nitrate based fertilizer such as 15-5-15 may aid in slowing or halting pH decline over time. The greater the potential acidity or basicity the more pH change occurs.
The following table lists approximate guidelines for selecting a water soluble fertilizer. Remember to Consult your extension educator or fertilizer supply representative to select the appropriate fertilizer based on your water supply, container medium and specific crops.



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Ways to Lower pH

As we have seen, there are several tools we have available to adjust container medium pH. The specific the method you choose will depend on whether or not you need a quick fix or a gradual method to control pH over time.
Quick methods to lower pH
• Apply a one-time phosphoric acid drench (3.5 ounces of 75-85% phosphoric acid in 100 gallons of water) or
• Apply a one-time sulfuric acid drench (1.8 ounces of 90-95% sulfuric acid in 100 gallons of water) or
• as a last resort, apply an iron sulfate (FeSO4·7H2O) drench (3 lbs per 100 gallons of water). Be sure to mist off the foliage immediately after application or foliage burning can occur.
Gradual methods to lower pH
• Switch to a fertilizer that has a greater potential acidity (consider long-term fertilizer changes if pH is a continual problem).
• Continual acid injection to decrease water alkalinity to 120 ppm (or to bring the water source pH down to 5.8
When using ammonium/urea to decrease pH watch out for ammonium toxicity. That is, under cool wet conditions (typical in winter and early spring), plants can absorb too much ammonium which cause the symptoms of upward or downward curing of lower leaves (depending on plant species); and yellowing between the veins of older leaves which can progress to cell death. To avoid ammonium toxicity it is recommended that growers use a fertilizer with 40% or less ammonium/urea nitrogen when growing conditions are cool and wet.


Ways to Raise pH

Quick methods to raise pH:
• Apply a flowable lime or potassium bicarbonate drench. A nice set of instructions available online at: https://extension.unh.edu/agric/AGGHFL/pHarticl.pdf
Gradual methods to raise pH:
• Stop acidifying water if acid is being injected
• Alternate to a nitrate based fertlizer
Note: The information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by Cooperative Extension is implied. Cornell Cooperative Extension and its employees assume no liability for the effectiveness or results of any product.





* Sulfur deficiency usually appears as yellowing of both upper and lower leaves
Key adapted from: Diagnosing nutrient disorders in fruit and vegetable crops. Peter Bierman and Carl Rosen, University of Minnesota.
Available online: https://www.extension.umn.edu/distrib...ure/M1190.html
Note: This diagnostic key is based on the most common symptoms. Plants vary in how they express nutrient disorders. Analysis of tissue or container media samples by a qualified laboratory is required to confirm the symptoms.






For more information on suggested pH ranges for specific greenhouse crops, see the publication: Monitoring and Managing pH and EC Using the Pour Thru Extraction Method. North Carolina State University. Online at: https://www.pourthruinfo.com/

there is more info and pics graphs that i couldnt fit into this post here - https://www.greenhouse.cornell.edu/cr...houseCrops.pdf
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Old 01-20-2012, 02:57 AM #2
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1, 2, 3’s of PourThru

The PourThru program is designed for growers to
monitor and manage crops. It involves three parts:
1) a simple technique for measuring pH and electrical
conductivity (EC), 2) charts for recording pH and
EC values, and 3) recommended ranges and procedures
for maintaining substrate pH and EC.



pH


The substrate pH is very important to plant nutrition.
The pH directly affects plant nutrient availability,
especially micronutrients (Fig. 1).
Low pH can result in increased micronutrient
availability which can lead to phytotoxicities in some
plants. For example, a low pH (< 5.8) can result in
iron and / or manganese toxicity in geraniums and
marigolds. In contrast, high pH (>6.2) can lead to
micronutrient (iron) deficiencies in petunias and
azaleas; and boron deficiency in salvia, petunias, and
pansies. Both excessively low and high pH’s should
be avoided in greenhouse production.
Most greenhouse crops grow best at pH 5.4 to 6.2, but
some crops such as azaleas and hydrangeas prefer an
acidic substrate while others such as Easter lilies are
grown at a higher pH.


Electrical Conductivity

Soluble salts are the total dissolved salts in the root
substrate (medium) and are measured by electrical
conductivity (EC). A conductivity meter measures
the passage of electrical current through a solution.
The higher the EC value, the easier it is for electric
current to move through the solution. The EC of the substrate provides insight to the nutrient status of the
crop. Keep in mind that not all of the salts measured
by an EC meter are fertilizer salts. An EC meter
measures the sum of all salts in a solution, but does not
provide details about the type or amount of each salt
present.
Excessively high EC values are associated with poor
shoot and root growth. Symptoms often begin on
the lower leaves as chlorosis and progress to necrotic
tips and margins. If the root substrate is allowed to
dry, plants may exhibit wilting symptoms because of
dieback of root tips, which further inhibits water and
nutrient uptake. High EC has also been linked with
the increased incidence of Pythium root rot.
In contrast, when EC values are too low, plant growth
can be stunted or leaf discoloration can result from
the lack of nutrients. Usually nitrogen is the most
typical nutrient deficiency (lower leaf yellowing).
But lower leaf purpling (phosphorus deficiency),
interveinal chlorosis of the lower leaves (magnesium
deficiency), or lower leaf interveinal chlorosis and
marginal necrosis (potassium deficiency) can also
occur.


Sampling Program
Sampling results are only as good as the sampling
procedure. How to set up a sampling program, which
crops to sample, and the number of samples to collect
are all factors to consider.

Crops. Any single crop which makes a large contribution
to the “bottom line” should be included. Examples
include poinsettia, fall pansies, bedding plants,
geraniums, garden mums, or hanging baskets. If it is
a major crop, then include it!
The Troublemakers. Some crops are more troublesome
than others. Examples include crops which are
sensitive to low pH (celosia, dianthus, geraniums, and
African marigolds), to high pH (pansy, petunia, salvia,
snapdragons, and vinca), to low EC (Easter lily and
poinsettias), or to high EC (African violets, begonias,
cineraria, impatiens, New Guinea impatiens,
pansies, and primula). Consider including these
troublemakers in your sampling program.

Other Factors. Consider taking separate crop
samples if there are variations in the substrate used
(different manufacturers or ingredients), the fertilizer
type (acidic or basic) or rates, or planting dates.

Frequency. The speed of PourThru makes weekly
sampling possible. Ideally sampling should be done
weekly, but in practice it may not be possible. If time availability is a concern consider selecting the
“Top 10 Crops of Concern” based on their economic
value or if they tend to have nutritional problems.
Divide the crops into 2 groups of 5 and alternately
sample each group every other week.
Plugs should be sampled every 2 to 3 days. PourThru
interpretation standards have not been developed, so
consider using the “Squeeze” sampling method. (For
additional information, see the Floriculture Information
Center, click on the topic: Plugs. Address listed
below).
Number of Samples to Collect. For routine analysis,
collect and analyze a minimum of 5 individual
pots (or for bedding plants a minimum of 5 cell
packs). As a general rule, sample 5 pots per 1,000
pots of similarly treated plants. Results can then be
averaged for a single “interpretation value”.
Other Tips.
• If steps to correct an EC or pH problem have been
taken, then resample those plants weekly. If needed,
sample as frequently as every other day.
• If results seem atypical, consider resampling before
making drastic changes, especially to the substrate
pH.

Charts for recording pH and EC values, interpretation
values, and corrective procedures are all
listed at the Floriculture Information Center, click
on the topic: PourThru. That web address is:
https://floricultureinfo.com

PourThru Nutritional Monitoring Manuals are
available from the North Carolina Commercial
Flower Growers’ Assoc. for $15 + postage (919-779-
4618).

PourThru Steps

1. Irrigate your crop one hour before
testing
(Fig. 2a). Make sure the substrate
is saturated. If the automatic irrigation system
is variable, water the pots/flats by hand.
If using constant liquid feed, irrigate as
usual. If using periodic feeding (weekly,
etc.): a) irrigate with clear water, b) test a
day or two before you are to fertilize, and
c) test on the same day in the fertilizing
cycle each time. Consistency is very important!



2. Place saucer under container. After
the container has drained for an hour, place
a plastic saucer under the container (Fig.
2b). If testing seedlings in bedding plant
flats, pull out one cell pack and place it in
the saucer (Fig. 2c).

3. Pour enough distilled water on the
surface of the substrate to get 50 ml (1.5
oz) of leachate
(Fig. 2d). The amount of
water needed will vary with container size,
crop and environmental conditions. Use
the values in Table 1 as guides.

4. Collect leachate
for pH and EC

(Fig. 2e). Make sure
to get about 50 ml of
leachate each time
(Fig. 2f). Leachate
volumes over 60 ml
will begin to dilute
the sample and give
you lower EC readings.

5. Calibrate your
pH and EC meters
prior to testing
(Fig.
2g). The test results
are only as good as
the last calibrations.
Calibrate the instruments
every day that
they are used. Always
use fresh standard
solutions.
Never pour used solution
back in the
original bottle.

6. Measure pH and
EC of your samples

(Fig. 2h). Test the
extracts as soon as
possible. EC will not
vary much over time
provided there is no
evaporation of the
sample. The pH will
change within 2
hours. Record the
values on the charts
specific to each crop.




for all pics and tables please visit https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/f...out%20123s.pdf
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Salt Tolerance of Plants in Soil

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Substrate pH: Getting it Right for Your Crops

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Old 01-20-2012, 03:55 AM #3
MacGyver420
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good read thanks for the post!

im such a slacker all i have is a ph meter i really need a way to test EC, anything cheap one would recommend?

i would like to keep a log of my ph and ec over time that would be very helpful to dial in all the different damn strains i have going at once
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Old 01-20-2012, 11:21 PM #4
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why is there no mention of how plant roots have the ability to adjust soil/media pH on their own?
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Old 01-21-2012, 02:00 AM #5
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it didn't really mention the major 3 nutrients in relation to ph lockout...i've been really interested in nitrogen and potassium, i didn't realize that the rate of uptake of certain elements like zinc and boron are regulated by the solubility of those chemicals in water...
is that why a plant can have a 2 week surplus supply of nitrogen, yet seemingly only take up as much as it needs each day. however, if you keep increasing the concentration you get to a point that it seems to take up way more than it needs and burns...as far as i can tell the concentration of the nitrogen lowers the ph and makes it more water soluble and therefore allows it to be absorbed at rates high enough to burn the plant?
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Old 01-21-2012, 04:41 AM #6
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A classic symptom of this is iron toxicity which appears as leaf bronzing and chlorosis (yellowing) which appear first on lower leaves (Photograph 1). Certain plants that are especially efficient at taking up iron, such as seed and zonal geraniums and marigolds, can exhibit iron toxicity when pH is below 6.0.



where are the pics?
i'd like to see what leaf bronzing looks like.

great info btw joe
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Old 01-21-2012, 05:18 AM #7
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Originally Posted by the gnome View Post
A classic symptom of this is iron toxicity which appears as leaf bronzing and chlorosis (yellowing) which appear first on lower leaves (Photograph 1). Certain plants that are especially efficient at taking up iron, such as seed and zonal geraniums and marigolds, can exhibit iron toxicity when pH is below 6.0.



where are the pics?
i'd like to see what leaf bronzing looks like.

great info btw joe

the links are in the post to the original pdf
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Quote:
“If voting made any difference they wouldn't let us do it.” - Mark Twain
Quote:
NEVER ARGUE WITH AN IDIOT, HE WILL LOWER YOU TO HIS LEVEL AND BEAT YOU BY EXPERIENCE
The Fresh spot

Phytophythora - "The Plant Destroyer"

Pythium Root Rot in Soil and Hydroponic Applications

Salt Tolerance of Plants in Soil

Pour Thru Method for testing soil PH and EC

Substrate pH: Getting it Right for Your Crops

Marijuana Documentaries
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Old 07-15-2017, 09:29 PM #8
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charts and images not rendered correctly

Do I need to change a setting to see the charts and images? They are showing up as a string of bytes.
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