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Old 11-28-2010, 07:36 PM #11
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Mesophyll: The ground tissue (parenchyma) of a leaf, located between the layers of epidermis; it is structured into pallisade- and spongy parenchyma, housing chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll (site of photosynthesis).
Motility of Plants: Even though plants cannot move actively across a given area (except adventitious root development) it possesses various ways of motion, which requires ATP: Insectivory: Feeding upon animals; plants that are able to utilize proteins obtained from trapped animals, chiefly insects; e.g. venus fly trap, in which inward-lying cells are elongated by virtue of the high vacuole- turgor-pressure; once an insect touches the trigger-hairs the flaps snap shut rapidly (deflation of stretched cells consumes ATP), pressing the insect against digestive glands on the inner surface of the trap. The trapping mechanism is so specialized that it can distinguish between living prey and inanimate objects.
Tropism: (Gk. tropes, turning) A growth response involving bending, curving of a plant part towards (positive) or away (negative) from an external stimulus that determines the direction of movements. • Gravitropism: (L. gravis, heavy; also geotropism) Response of a shoot or root to the pull of the earth’s
gravity. Roots grow downwards, positive gravitropism (high levels of auxin inhibit growth in roots), whereas shoot grows upwards, negative gravitropism. Roots are more sensitive to the response of auxin than stems (high auxin concentration, inhibits root growth). Perception of gravity is correlated with sedimentation of amyloplasts (starch containing statolithic plastids) w/n specific cells of shoot and root.
• Heliotropism: (Gk. helios, the sun) Ability of the leaves and flowers of many plants to move diurnally, orienting themselves either perpendicular or parallel to the sun’s direct rays; also called heliotropism. Diaheliotropism: the movement of the leaves is such that the broad surfaces of the blades remain perpendicular to the sun’s direct rays, resulting in a higher photosynthetic rate.
Paraheliotropism: Avoiding direct sunlight during periods of drought by orienting leaf blades parallel to
the sun’s rays. Minimizes absorption of solar radiation, lowers leaf temp., and transpirative water loss. • Phototropism: (Gk. photos, light) Growth movement of cells or organs in which light plays a decisive
role, and is related to the direction of light as the controlling external factor; e.g.: growth of a plant toward a light source by the influence of auxin; the cells of the shaded side of the tip migrates from the light-side to the dark-side, resulting in a turn or bend (compare photoperiodism). Cytoplasmic streaming: The plasma in the cell rotates and circulates actively under the influence of light. Particles in the protoplast such as nucleus, mitochondria, and plastids are often carried passively. Chloroplastic Orientation: Active repositioning of chloroplasts in the cytoplast of the mesophyll cells.
i) Diastrophic: Dark-light position, with max. light absorption i.e.: perpendicular to incoming light.
i) Parastrophic: Bright-light position; reduced light absorption; i.e.: almost parallel to incoming light. • Thigmotropism: (Gk. thigma, to touch) Response to contact with a solid object as seen in tendrils. They
wrap around any object with which they come in contact, and so enable the plant to cling and climb. NADx: see coenzymes.
Oxaloacetate: ): The C4-molecule formed in C4- plants, i.e.: the krebs cycle; the product when Pi is split off from PEP. Depending on the species, oxaloacetate is either reduced to malate or converted to asparate (additional amino group NH2), both C4 -compounds. Malate or asparate is a mediator transporting CO2 used in the calvin cycle.
Pathogen: (Gk. pathos, suffering + genesis, beginning) An organism that causes disease. PEP or Phosohophenolpyruvate: The compound to which CO2 binds in C4-plants. PEP converts under the influence
of CO2 to oxaloacetate, which is either reduced to malate (malic acid) or asparate (extra amino group NH2). Peroxisome: A microbody that plays an important role in glycolic acid metabolism associated with photorespiration. PGA (3-phoshoglycocerate): The C3-sugar formed in C3- plants, i.e.: the calvin cycle. Phosphoryltation: (Gk. phosphorous, bringing light) A reaction in which phosphate is added to a compound; e.g.:
the formation of ATP from ADP (PSI), NADPH from NADP+ (PSII) and inorganic phosphate; see photosystem. Photo-P.: (Gk. photos, light) The formation of ATP in the chloroplast during photosynthesis. Cyclic Photo-Phosphorylation: A photosystem lacking PSII, yielding only small amounts of ATP an no NADPH; a very ancient type of photosynthesis.
Noncyclic Photo-Phosphorylation: The modern type of plant having both PS I & II - the zigzag scheme providing both ATP, and the more efficient energy carrier NADPH.
Light dependent reaction: Light is required to generate ATP and NADPH.
PSII: 2H2O → (Elight = h⋅f) → O2 + 4H+ + 4e- ADP+Pi →(Elight =h⋅f)→ATP
5
Photoperiodism: Response to duration and timing of day and night; a mechanism evolved by organisms for measuring seasonal time. Plants that flower only under certain day-length conditions; and is a biological response to a change in the proportions of light and dark in a 24 hour daily cycle. • Short Day Plants: Flower in early spring or fall when days are shorter with less intense light.
• Long Day Plants: Flower in the summer, when the light periods are longer than the critical length.
• Day Neutral Plants: Flower without respect to length of the day. Photorespiration: see plants, types of - C3-plant. Photosynthesis: (Gk. photos, light + syn, together + tithenai, to place) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy;
PLANTS: Solar radiation is used by plants to oxidize water, reduce CO2, and release of O2. Plants use <5% of the radiant energy, the majority is reflected or lost as heat; see also cycle-carbon. Chloroplast: A two-membranous plastid containing pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids); most active photosynthetic tissue in higher plants is found in the pallisade parenchyma of leaves (mesophyll).
• Granum: Stacks of thylakoids seen with electron microscopes, and as green granules with light microscopes; grana contain chlorophylls and carotenoids; see also photosynthetic pigments.
• Stroma: (Gk. stroma, to spread out) Ground substance, aqueous region of plastids; the site of reactions by which photochemical energy is used to synthesize carbon containing compounds (site of dark reaction). • Thylakoid: (Gk. thylakos, sac + oides, like) A saclike membranous structure in cyanobacteria and grana in
eukaryotic autotrophic organisms (stacks of thylakoids form grana); chlorophyll pigments are found within
the thylakoid membranes (site of light dependent reaction). Intense photosynthesis, causes some of the photosynthate to be stored temporarily in chloroplast as starch- grains; sugars are transported via phloem to target cells (root) for nourishment and to produce cellulose.
Light independent reaction (dark reaction in the stroma of photosynthetic cells), the enzymatic reactions resulting in the synthesis of glucose from CO2, ATP; and NADPH;
CO2 +H2O→CH2O≈P→(CH2O)n
PSI: 2NADP+ + 2H+ → (Elight = h⋅f) → 2NADPH Nitrate (NO2-) conversion to ammonium (NH4+) occurs in chloroplasts as well, hence, in stark competition for ATP and free electrons with the carbon fixing process! Allover oxygenic photosynthesic reaction: CO2 + 12H2O → (Elight = h⋅f) → C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2 An/oxic autotrophic organisms use light energy to satisfy their energetical requirements; anoxic bacteria derive their H+ protons from chemical compounds other than H2O requiring less energy to be split); see bacterium. Phototrophic anoxic reaction: CO2 + H2S → (Elight = h⋅f) → CH2O + H2O + S
2NADPH → 2CH2O≈P → 2NADP+ + 2H+
6
Photosynthetic Pigments: A substance that absorbs light, often selectively. P. Spectrum: The spectrum of light waves absorbed by a particular pigment eliciting a certain reaction; gamma rays (short wavelength) are too energetic (destroy biological molecules), radio waves don’t excite them at all. Carotenoids: A class of fat-soluble pigments (yellow and orange pigments); found in chloro- and chromo- plasts of plants. Carotenoids act as accessory pigments in photosynthesis. • β-C.: A yellow to red carotenoid with the empirical formula C40H56, found in fruits e.g.: pericarp of
tomatoes. • Fucoxanthin: (Gk. phykos, seaweed + xanthos, ye/br) Brownish pigment of brown algae and
chrysophytes. • Xanthophyll: (Gk. xanthos, yellowish-brown + phyllon, leaf) A yellow fat-soluble light shielding pigment.
Light Shielding: Besides cytoplasmic streaming, xanthophyllic carotenoid absorb excessive light (electromagnetic radiation) to protect the photosynthetic complex from overexposure by converting EMR it into heat; light converts violaxanthin into zeaxanthin which deactivates the antenna complex of the photosystem, preventing photodistruction of chlorophyll by overexposition to pure O2.
Chlorophyll: (Gk. chloros, green + phyllon, leaf) The green pigment of plant cells, which is the receptor of light energy in photosynthesis; a tetrapyrrole ring structure on top with 4 internally placed N-atom, itself facing towards the centrally located Mg-atom; the entire complex is attached to a hydrophobic C20H39 phytol tail, which anchors the molecule into the photosynthetic thylakoid membrane; see table and scan below.
• C. a: blue-green; with an extra CH3 molecule attached at the opposite end of the tetrapyrrole. • C. b: yellow-green; aldehyde (CHO) instead of CH3 attached at the opposite end of the tetrapyrrole. Phycobilins: A group of water-soluble accessory pigments, which occur in the red algae and cyanobacteria. Phytochrome: A phycobilin-like pigment (photoreceptor for red and far-red light) found in the cytoplasm of plants and a few green algae; phytochromes do not participate in photosynthetic reactions. Plants contain phytochrome in two different inter-convertible forms: • Pr absorbs red light (660 nm), the biological inactive form of the protein (inhibits reactions, but allows
plant to grow pale and spindly, changes to Pfr (pigment fully reactive) when exposed to (red) light.
Phytochrome is continuously synthesized as Pr from its amino acid precursors. • Pfr absorbs far-red light (730 nm), the biological active form triggering reactions, e.g.: induces germination
flowering, dormancy, leaf formation, seed germination, shade detection, etc. by triggering the release of plant hormones via a cis-trans isomerisation (cascade amplification). Pfr is converted back to Pr when exposed to far-red light (darkness, dark reversion) or lost through hydrolysis by proteases.
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Old 11-28-2010, 07:39 PM #12
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Photosynthetic Proteins: The protein complexes of PSI and PSII spatially separated within the thylakoid membrane indicating a one to one stoichiometric ratio between those two systems. Antenna: Large numbers of light collecting pigment serve as antenna, where the excitation transfer process in the antenna is a purely physical phenomenon and does not involve an chemical change. Chemical reactions first take place in the reaction center of PSII and PSI; subsequent reactions stabilize the unstable products of the initial chemical reactions.
Cytochrome: (cyt b6-f) Four different integral proteins, three of which contain iron that undergoes reduction to Fe2+ and then oxidation back to Fe3+ during electron flow. It mediates electrons generated by PSII towards the PSI reaction center. Cyclic Electron Flow: In chloroplasts, the light induced flow of electrons originating from and returning to photosystem I.
Noncyclic Electron Flow: The light-induced flow of electrons from water to NADP+ in oxygen-evolving photosynthesis; it involves both photosystem I and II. Photosystem: A discrete unit of organization of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules embedded in the stroma thylakoids of chloroplasts and involved with the light-requiring reactions of photosynthesis. Oxygenic photosynthesis requires two photosystems since the energy level to split H2O is very high. P680 and P700 refer to the wavelength of maximum absorption of the reactions center chlorophylls in PSII and PSI.
• PS II: A series of noncovalently bondend complex intrinsic polypeptides; associated with three peripheral (extrinsic) polypeptides, thought to aid in binding of Ca2+ and Cl-, both of which are essential for photolysis of water. The P680 core complex (LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEX-II) receives red light energy by inductive resonance from a total of about 250 chlorophyll a and b molecules (associated with few integral chlorophylls + xanthophylls proteins which act as an antenna system), producing a strong oxidant (oxidizes water) and a weak reductant: f, frequency [s-1] [Hz]
2H2O → (Elight = h⋅f) → O2 + 4H+ + 4e- h, plank’s c. 6.63⋅10-34 [J⋅s] more precise: 2H2O + 4 photons + 2 oxidized plastoquinone (2PQ) → O2 + 4H+ + 2 reduced plastoquinone (2PQH2) 2PQH2 + 4 plastocyanin (4PC-Cu2+) → 2PQ + 4PC(Cu+) + 4H+ (lumen)
The increasing H+ concentration (low pH causes an electrochemical proton gradient) within the lumen of the thylakoid is used to synthesize ATP, when H+ tunnels back out to the stroma through the integral coupling factors (CF’s): ADP + Pi → ( H+) → ATP PS I: Even though it uses (far) red light independently, PSII recruits electrons originally released by the PSII H2O-lysis mediated via the cytochrome complex. This reaction causes cytochrome to transport H+ ions across the membrane from the stroma into the thylakoid membrane (further decrease of internal pH). Two large polypeptides bind the reaction center P700, some chlorophyll a molecules and three electron carriers (NADP+) called phylloquinone and a Fe-S group. The PSI core complex receives light by inductive resonance from about 100 chlorophyll a and b molecules formed to an other antenna system (LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEX-I). The strong reductant produced by PSI reduces NADP+, to NADPH, which is released into the stroma: f, frequency [s-1] [Hz
2NADP+ + 2H+ → (Elight = h⋅f) → 2NADPH] h, plank’s c. 6.63⋅10-34 [J⋅s] more precise: 4PC(Cu+) + 4Fd(Fe3+) → (Elight = h⋅f) → 4PC(Cu+) + 4Fe(Fd2+) 4Fe(Fd2+) + 2NADP+ + 2H+ → 4Fd(Fe3+) + 2NADPH
Photosynthetic Products: Most of the fixed carbon is converted either to sucrose, the major transport sugar, or to starch, the major storage carbohydrate in amyloplasts and in the stroma (temporarily) of plants. Sucrose (disaccharide) is favored over glucose (monosaccharide), to avoid digestion of monosaccharides during transportation down the phloem by those cells. Once arrived at target tissues, disaccarides are cleaved into glucose and fructose.
Photosynthetic Response: The dose-response of photosynthetic C-fixation as a function of photon flux. A C4 (sun loving) plant has a higher light compensation point, a higher maximal photosynthetic rate, than a C3 (shade) plant. Maximal saturation is determined by the slow-working carboxylase - see rubisco and plants, types of. Light Compensation Point: At this point, the amount CO2 evolved by mitochondrial respiration is balanced by the amount of CO2 fixed by photosynthesis.
Phytochrom: see photosynthetic pigments.
8
Plants, Types of : According to the light-independent reaction, CO2 fixation is achieved by the following: C3 P.: (Calvin cycle) Enzymatically mediated photosynthetic reactions of shade-plants during which CO2 is attached to ribulose, a C5-sugar (RuBP, a CO2 acceptor), yielding a C6-sugar which spontaneously breaks into 2 C3-sugars (3-PGA). Rubisco is resynthesized out of 5C3-sugars giving 3C5-sugars. Sugar-compounds can temporarily be converted to starch, stored in amyloplasts, and reconverted into sugars via ATP and NADPH to ADP and NADP+ (glucose is more stable and compact than ATP, NADPH) - see scan below:
6CO2 + 12NADPH + 12H+ + 18ATP → 1glucose + 12NADP+ + 18ADP + 18Pi + 6H2O • Photorespiration (PR): In C3 plants only; photosynthesis in C3 plants is always accompanied by PR, a
process that consumes O2 and releases CO2 in the presence of light. Since no ATP is yielded by PR, it diverts some of the light-depending reactions from biosynthesis of glucose into reduction of O2. Up to 50% of CO2 fixed in C3 plants may be again reoxidized to CO2.
C4 P.: Sun-loving plants; CO2 is fixed to a compound known as PEP (by the enzyme PEP carboxylase in mesophyll cells) to oxaloacetate (a C4 compound), which is rapidly converted to malic acid. This malate is then transported to bundle sheath cells (spatial separation), where the CO2 is released (turbo charger) converting back to pyruvate. The CO2 thus enters the calvin cycle, ultimately yielding sugars and starch. Pyruvate returns to the mesophyll cells for regeneration of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP); requires more energy than in C3 plants.
• Spatial separation: Photosynthesis in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, synthesis of sugars and starch in the bundle sheath; due to spatial separation no competition between O2 and CO2, hence no photorespiration.
CAM P.: (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) Variant of the C4 pathway; phosphoenolpyruvate fixes CO2 in C4 compounds (PEP carboxylase) at night. The malic acid so formed is stored in the vacuole. During daytime, fixed CO2 (malic acid) will be decarboxylated and transferred to the ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) of the calvin cycle within the same cell. Characteristic of most succulent, slow-growing, desert-plants; e.g.: cacti.
• Temporal separation: CO2 fixation at night (dark reaction), photosynthesis at day (light reaction). RuBP (ribulose 1.5-biphosphate): A C5-sugar with two attached phosphate groups; the precursor of Rubisco and
PGA (calvin cycle); rubisco is later regenerated by the synthesis of 5C3-sugars to yield 3C5-sugars. Rubisco or RuBP carboxylase: A very abundant enzyme in chloroplasts that catalyzes initial reaction of the calvin
cycle (C3 plants), involving the fixation of CO2 to ribulose 1.5-biphosphate (RuBP); plants need a large
amount of this slow-working enzyme; up to 50% of leaf matter consists of carboxylase. Senescence: Aging of a plant by dissolving cell walls; see hormones - ethylene. Stomata: (Gk. stoma, mouth) Minute openings, bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems through
which gases pass (CO2, O2, H2O-vapor); the entire stomatal apparatus (guard cells plus pores). Guard Cell: Pairs of specialized epidermal cells surrounding a pore, or stoma; changes in turgor pressure of a pair of guard cells cause opening and closing of the pore. Stomatal Regulation: Stomatal movements results from changes in turgor pressure with in the guard cells. The major solute responsible for this gradient is potassium (K+); higher K+ and Cl- concentration causes stomata to open (water rushes in due to osmosis), whereas closure when it drops. Opening occurs when solutes are actively accumulated in these cells. Stomatal closure is brought about by the reverse process (a declining guard cell solute); water moves out of the guard cells lowering turgor pressure. Guard cells chloroplasts fix CO2 photosynthetically to form sugar, which contribute to the solute buildup required for stomatal opening. Environmental factors that effect stomatal movement: 1. Increase in CO2 concentration (sensors in guard cells, PEP & Rubisco) cause stomata to close. 2. Water shortage increases concentration of abcidic acid (ABA, originating from mesophyll) which causes
K+ to leave the guard cells resulting closed stomata. 3. Temperatures > 30 to 35°C causes stomatal closure. 4. Circadian rhythm (L. circa, approx. + dies, day) contribute to stomatal opening and closure. Stomata open
with light (blue light stimulate stomatal opening, independent of CO2 due to K+ uptake by the guard cells)
and close in darkness (red light stimulate stomatal closing). 5. Dryer air and wind accelerates dehydration of plant; water loss can be retarded by epidermal hairs or
stomatal openings lowered into the mesophyll. 6. Glycolytic breakdown of starch (in guard cells of C4-plants only) to PEP is used to form malate (along with
CO2), an increase level of malate, cause stomata to open. Tropism: A growth response involving bending, curving of a plant; see motility of plants.
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To the large and singular furniture of this noble island i have added from foreign places all the variety of herbs and flowers that i might any way obtain.
i've laboured with the soil to make it fit for plants, and with the plants that they might delight in the soil - so they might live and prosper under our climate as in their native and proper country.
Gerard's Herbal (1636)

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VerdantGreen's organic modular ScrOG cabinet - 236W LED

VerdantGreen's low wattage veg/flower cab,

VerdantGreen's 104 watt micro grow (ScrOG)

VerdantGreen's bin growing! 28W LED Organic.

VerdantGreen's Quarters - 187w LED organic modular scrog grow diary

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Old 12-10-2010, 02:42 PM #13
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Great resource spurr, thanks!
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Old 07-05-2011, 09:32 PM #14
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@ all,

It appears the link I posted is now broken, so here is the same glossary from 2006, thanks to WayBackMachine:
https://web.archive.org/web/200610012.../plant-phy.pdf

I am also going to upload that glossary here.

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Old 09-25-2011, 11:22 PM #15
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Great resource, thanks
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Old 12-11-2014, 05:39 AM #16
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Good reference, thanks for the efforts to make it available and easy to access!
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Old 07-16-2015, 11:31 PM #17
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thanks for the info

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Originally Posted by spurr View Post
Hi,

I thought this would make a good sticky, as one member, at least, has expressed frustration at the terms often used in plant physiology. I hope this helps some folks, it's not perfect, but it a good resource.

Glossary - Botany Plant Physiology
https://web.archive.org/web/200610012.../plant-phy.pdf


right on
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Old 07-27-2016, 05:57 AM #18
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Old 07-23-2017, 11:50 PM #19
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Great resources, Thanks for linking.
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