Register ICMag Forum Menu Features Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read
You are viewing our:
in:
Forums > Talk About It! > Toker's Den > Have you looked at the North Pole lately?

Thread Title Search
Post Reply
Have you looked at the North Pole lately? Thread Tools Search this Thread
Old 06-27-2019, 10:59 PM #2231
moose eater
Senior Member

moose eater's Avatar

Join Date: Aug 2017
Location: Off a dead-end dirt road, near a river, out of town, in the hills and trees
Posts: 2,575
moose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivor
Missed a modest surge of fish by about 2 hours; we were there, but took too much time getting settled, and trying to find a good spot to park/tent. After insufficient sleep in the previous 2 days, then 300+ miles of motating after packing and such, I was up way too many hours for my age and condition, and found myself in a state of mild to moderate hypothermia on Thursday night/Friday morning, at about 4:30 A.M. Crawled into my bag in a somewhat braced place on the fairly steep trail above the river, and got all of about an hour of sleep before the Sun baked me, waking me up.


Too cold.. Too hot. No rest for the wicked.

And once I start putting fish on a stringer in the river, my clock starts ticking, and I hate to leave them, even in glacial-fed water, for more than 24 hours or so. 36 hours at the very most, before it's time to head home and get bloody..

Going back down in early to mid-July, immediately before our annual trip to the Yukon Territory with my younger son and I, and going back to Chitina with several boats to drift, while dipping through a specific channel below the main area of the canyon, for the earlier part of the second sockeye/red run, but kings will likely be few and far between by then... if not closed by then for those of us taking part in the 'personal-use fishery.'

There's also no guarantee that just because we had a 'decent' first run of reds at Chitina, that the second run will be equal or better. We've seen them fall off abruptly in later runs, after showing heavy for the first, and visa versa. Mother Nature's 'grab bag.' She's full of mysteries sometimes. ;^>)

To quote an old adage, over-used by now, "That's why they call it fishing instead of catching."' ;^>)
---------------------------------------------
My younger son surfs via his smart phone at various places along the road, but I've always seen that as a security risk , and don't even own a true 'smart phone.'

But yeah, the new fiber optic gear ('brought to you by light' ;^>)... ), for as long as we can afford to feed our addiction, is pretty cool. Touch a button, and there you are. NEAT!! No more doing chores while stuff takes a half-hour or more to load, and then, if it loads, the frequent discovery that the screen won't work/interact properly= dead links/keys.
--------------------------------------
Recall the post I made weeks ago re. the salmon runs coming earlier, as a result of the changes we're discussing.

Oyster famers here are seeing changes, too. One up-side for the oyster farmers is that the ability to raise their own splats -may- improve, rather than having to buy splats to then raise.. The down sides include greater frequency of red tides/toxic algae blooms, acidification, newly introduced bacteria that were not here before, and so on.
moose eater is online now Quote


3 members found this post helpful.
Old 06-28-2019, 09:12 PM #2232
trichrider
THEORETICAL

trichrider's Avatar

Join Date: Apr 2010
Location: between CB1 and the singularity.
Posts: 7,328
trichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond repute
Thunderbolt of lightning, gamma rays exciting Researchers connect lightning with gamma-ray phenomena in clouds Research news



June 26, 2019

Tweet




A thundercloud over the city of Kanazawa. The gamma-ray glow terminated abruptly around location B. The lightning struck between locations A and B. Image: © 2019 Yuuki Wada

University of Tokyo graduate student Yuuki Wada with colleagues from Japan discover a connection between lightning strikes and two kinds of gamma-ray phenomena in thunderclouds. The research suggests that in certain conditions, weak gamma-ray glows from thunderclouds may precede lightning bolts and their accompanying gamma-ray flashes.
In the city of Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture, in central Japan, Wada and colleagues work with local schools and businesses to install radiation monitors onto buildings. These radiation monitors are not there due to some worry about local radiation levels, though. They form a network, the purpose of which is to detect radiation coming from the sky. It may surprise some, but it’s been known for around 30 years that thunderstorms can bring with them gamma-ray activity.
“Forever, people have seen lightning and heard thunder. These were the ways we could experience this power of nature,” said Wada. “With the discovery of electromagnetism, scientists learned to see lightning with radio receivers. But now we can observe lightning in gamma rays - ionizing radiation. It’s like having four eyes to study the phenomena.”

A thundercloud can carry over 1 billion volts of electricity. Image: © 2019 Yuuki Wada

There are two known kinds of gamma-ray phenomena associated with thunderclouds: gamma-ray glows, weak emissions which last about a minute, and short-lived terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs), which occur as lightning strikes and are much more intense than gamma-ray glows. Both occur in regions of thunderclouds sandwiched between layers of varying charge. The charged regions accelerate electrons to near the speed of light. At these speeds, referred to as relativistic, electrons that stray very close to the nuclei of nitrogen atoms in the air slow down a little and emit a telltale gamma ray. This is called bremsstrahlung radiation.
“During a winter thunderstorm in Kanazawa, our monitors detected a simultaneous TGF and lightning strike. This is fairly common, but interestingly we also saw a gamma-ray glow in the same area at the same time,” continued Wada. “Furthermore, the glow abruptly disappeared when the lightning struck. We can say conclusively the events are intimately connected and this is the first time this connection has been observed.”

The mechanism underlying lightning discharge is highly sought after and this research may offer previously unknown insights. Wada and team intend to further their investigation to explore the possibility that gamma-ray glows don’t just precede lightning strikes, but may in fact cause them. Radiation levels of the gamma-ray flashes are quite low, approximately a tenth the level one may receive from a typical medical X-ray.
“Our finding marks a milestone in lightning research and we will soon double our number of radiation sensors from 23 to about 40 or 50. With more sensors, we could greatly improve predictive models,” explained Wada. “It’s hard to say right now, but with sufficient sensor data, we may be able to predict lightning strikes within about 10 minutes of them happening and within around 2 kilometers of where they happen. I’m excited to be part of this ongoing research.”
Further investigations will likely still take place in Kanazawa as the area has rare and ideal meteorological conditions for this kind of work. Most radiation observations in storms come from airborne or mountain-based stations as thunderclouds are generally very high up. But winter storms in Kanazawa bring thunderclouds surprisingly close to the ground, ideal for study with the low-cost portable monitors developed by the research team.
The researchers created these unique portable radiation monitors in part with technology derived from space-based satellite observatories designed for astrophysics experiments. This is appropriate as the data from this kind of research could be useful for those who research astrophysics and in particular solar physics in the context of particle acceleration. But there is a more down-to-earth offshoot as well.
“Paleontologists who study life from the last 50,000 years or so use a technique called carbon-14 dating to determine the age of a sample. The technique relies on knowledge of the levels of two kinds of carbon, carbon-12 and carbon-14,” said Wada. “It’s commonly thought carbon-14 is created by cosmic rays at a roughly constant rate, hence the predictive power of the technique. But there’s a suggestion thunderstorms may alter the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14, which may slightly change the accuracy of or calibration required for carbon-14 dating to work.”
Wada and colleagues will continue to unpick the mysteries of lightning, one of nature's most captivating and iconic phenomena. An upcoming collaborative project based in France will launch a dedicated satellite for worldwide lightning observations from space.


https://www.u-tokyo.ac.jp/focus/en/p...508_00052.html
__________________
"I'm not always a dick...but when I am, I drink cheap beer".

trichrider is offline Quote


Old 06-28-2019, 09:24 PM #2233
trichrider
THEORETICAL

trichrider's Avatar

Join Date: Apr 2010
Location: between CB1 and the singularity.
Posts: 7,328
trichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond repute
Intercomparison of the POES/MEPED Loss Cone Electron Fluxes With the CMIP6 Parametrization



H. Nesse Tyssøy1, A. Haderlein1, M. I. Sandanger1, and J. Stadsnes11



Birkeland Centre for Space Science, Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (UiB), Bergen, Norway



Abstract
Quantitative measurements of medium energy electron (MEE) precipitation (>40 keV) are a key to understand the total effect of particle precipitation on the atmosphere. The Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED) instrument on board the NOAA/Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites(POES) has two sets of electron telescopes pointing ~0° and ~90° to the local vertical. Pitch angle anisotropy,which varies with particle energy, location, and geomagnetic activity, makes the 0° detector measurements a lower estimate of the flux of precipitating electrons. In the solar forcing recommended for Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) 6 (v3.2) MEE precipitation is parameterized by Ap based on 0° detector measurements hence providing a general underestimate of the flux level. In order to assess the accuracy of the Ap model, we compare the modeled electron fluxes with estimates of the loss cone fluxes using both detectors in combination with electron pitch angle distributions from theory of waveparticle interactions.The Ap model falls short in respect to reproducing the flux level and variability associated with strong geomagnetic storms (Ap > 40) as well as the duration of co-rotating interaction region storms causing a systematic bias within a solar cycle. As the Apparameterized fluxes reach a plateau for Ap > 40, the model's ability to reflect the flux level of previous solar cycles associated with generally higher Ap values is questioned. The objective of this comparison is to understand the potential uncertainty in the energetic particle precipitation applying the CMIP6 particle energy input in order to assess its subsequent impact on the atmosphere.


https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1906/1906.10460.pdf




https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/goes-electron-flux
......................



Carbon dioxide can disassociate to form oxygen under uv light in upper atmosphere

Oxygen in our atmosphere comes mainly from photosynthesis and not many multi-step abiotic processes producing oxygen from carbon dioxide are known.
But now work with a vacuum ultra violet laser (simulating uv light in the upper atmosphere) shows that the resulting excitation of carbon dioxide molecules can lead to the production of oxygen by disassociation. Vacuum ultra violet (200 – 10 nm; 6.20 – 124 eV) is strongly absorbed by atmospheric oxygen, but 150–200 nm wavelengths can propagate through nitrogen. This is particularly intriguing since it would be controlled by the oxygen concentration in the upper atmosphere. A lack of oxygen would lead to an increase of available vacuum uv available to trigger the disassociation of any carbon dioxide present. This could be a continuous and natural process where carbon dioxide, excited by solar ultra violet light in the upper atmosphere, is broken down to produce oxygen.
Perhaps this happens often enough and in sufficient volume to dampen CO2 concentration increase in the atmosphere.
UC Davis chemists have shown how ultraviolet light can split carbon dioxide to form oxygen in one step. Credit: Zhou Lu

Z. Lu, Y. C. Chang, Q.-Z. Yin, C. Y. Ng, W. M. Jackson.


Evidence for direct molecular oxygen production in CO2 photodissociation. Science, 2014; 346 (6205): 61
DOI: 10.1126/science.1257156



Abstract: Photodissociation of carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been assumed to proceed exclusively to carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen atom (O) primary products. However, recent theoretical calculations suggested that an exit channel to produce C + O2 should also be energetically accessible. Here we report the direct experimental evidence for the C + O2 channel in CO2 photodissociation near the energetic threshold of the C(3P) + O2(X3Σg–) channel with a yield of 5 ± 2% using vacuum ultraviolet laser pump-probe spectroscopy and velocity-map imaging detection of the C(3PJ) product between 101.5 and 107.2 nanometers. Our results may have implications for nonbiological oxygen production in CO2-heavy atmospheres.


UC Davis Press Release:
UC Davis graduate student Zhou Lu, working with professors in the Departments of Chemistry and of Earth and Planetary Sciences, has shown that oxygen can be formed in one step by using a high energy vacuum ultraviolet laser to excite carbon dioxide. (The work is published Oct. 3 in the journal Science).
“Previously, people believed that the abiotic (no green plants involved) source of molecular oxygen is by CO2 + solar light — > CO + O, then O + O + M — > O2 + M (where M represents a third body carrying off the energy released in forming the oxygen bond),” Zhou said in an email. “Our results indicate that O2 can be formed by carbon dioxide dissociation in a one step process. The same process can be applied in other carbon dioxide dominated atmospheres such as Mars and Venus.”
Zhou used a vacuum ultraviolet laser to irradiate CO2 in the laboratory. Vacuum ultraviolet light is so-called because it has a wavelength below 200 nanometers and is typically absorbed by air. The experiments were performed by using a unique ion imaging apparatus developed at UC Davis.
Such one-step oxygen formation could be happening now as carbon dioxide increases in the region of the upper atmosphere, where high energy vacuum ultraviolet light from the Sun hits Earth or other planets. It is the first time that such a reaction has been shown in the laboratory. According to one of the scientists who reviewed the paper for Science, Zhou’s work means that models of the evolution of planetary atmospheres will now have to be adjusted to take this into account.

https://ktwop.com/2014/10/07/carbon-...er-atmosphere/

paper here: https://sci-hub.tw/10.1126/science.1257156
__________________
"I'm not always a dick...but when I am, I drink cheap beer".

trichrider is offline Quote


1 members found this post helpful.
Old 06-29-2019, 07:45 PM #2234
trichrider
THEORETICAL

trichrider's Avatar

Join Date: Apr 2010
Location: between CB1 and the singularity.
Posts: 7,328
trichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond repute
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4_w9BId_Pms


IMPORTANT NOTICE: No media files are hosted on these forums. By clicking the link below you agree to view content from an external website. We can not be held responsible for the suitability or legality of this material. If the video does not play, wait a minute or try again later.
I AGREE



US energy startup builds power plant that produces no carbon emissions
__________________
"I'm not always a dick...but when I am, I drink cheap beer".

trichrider is offline Quote


Old 06-29-2019, 08:15 PM #2235
St. Phatty
Senior Member

Join Date: Mar 2014
Posts: 4,828
St. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivor
https://www.theguardian.com/environm...ls-cooked-heat

interesting article about the effect of the recent Pacific Coast heat wave on the ocean in South Sonoma /North Marin coast.

Got so hot at low tide that it killed the mussels on the rocks.

Not sure how rare that is.
__________________
~ Greetings from Tatooine ~
St. Phatty is offline Quote


2 members found this post helpful.
Old 06-30-2019, 03:54 AM #2236
trichrider
THEORETICAL

trichrider's Avatar

Join Date: Apr 2010
Location: between CB1 and the singularity.
Posts: 7,328
trichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond repute
Quote:
Originally Posted by St. Phatty View Post
https://www.theguardian.com/environm...ls-cooked-heat

interesting article about the effect of the recent Pacific Coast heat wave on the ocean in South Sonoma /North Marin coast.

Got so hot at low tide that it killed the mussels on the rocks.

Not sure how rare that is.
https://www.accuweather.com/en/us/bo...eather/2155127
June
2019
Tue Jun 25
Actual Temp
60° /54°
Hist. Avg.
63°/51°
Wed Jun 26
Actual Temp
59° /49°
Hist. Avg.
63°/51°
Thu Jun 27
Actual Temp
55° /49°
Hist. Avg.
63°/51°


Yesterday
Actual Temp
58° /51°
Hist. Avg.
63°/52°
Tonight Jun 29
53°
Clear to partly cloudy
Hist. Avg.
63°/52°

Sun Jun 30
61° /53°
Plenty of sun
Hist. Avg.
63°/52°

https://www.accuweather.com/en/us/bo...eather/2155127


A record-breaking June heatwave apparently caused the largest die-off of mussels in at least 15 years at Bodega Head, a small headland on the northern California bay. And Sones received reports from other researchers of similar mass mussel deaths at various beaches across roughly 140 miles of coastline.


sure they did....Fukushima?
smh

the interwebs are educational, don't misuse them and they will remain a source.
apologies would be appropriate for misleading with such hyperbole, not to me , but to your fans who think you're providing information supporting an empty premise.
__________________
"I'm not always a dick...but when I am, I drink cheap beer".

trichrider is offline Quote


Old 06-30-2019, 04:23 AM #2237
moose eater
Senior Member

moose eater's Avatar

Join Date: Aug 2017
Location: Off a dead-end dirt road, near a river, out of town, in the hills and trees
Posts: 2,575
moose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivormoose eater is a survivor
We were over 90 f. on my porch this afternoon.

I called the Fairbanks airport/NOAA/Nat'l Weather Service a few minutes ago, and they said 88 .f at that time.

Smokey. Fires burning in damned near any direction you drive, though far away. Yet, even with the distance, the smell of forest fires (and yesterday, noteworthy smoke and haze) is in the air but thick.

All the joy of the campfire aura, but without the wienies or darkness.... or sing-alongs.
moose eater is online now Quote


2 members found this post helpful.
Old 06-30-2019, 04:08 PM #2238
St. Phatty
Senior Member

Join Date: Mar 2014
Posts: 4,828
St. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivorSt. Phatty is a survivor
Quote:
Originally Posted by moose eater View Post
We were over 90 f. on my porch this afternoon.

I called the Fairbanks airport/NOAA/Nat'l Weather Service a few minutes ago, and they said 88 .f at that time.

Smokey. Fires burning in damned near any direction you drive, though far away. Yet, even with the distance, the smell of forest fires (and yesterday, noteworthy smoke and haze) is in the air but thick.

All the joy of the campfire aura, but without the wienies or darkness.... or sing-alongs.
From the NIFC website -

States currently reporting large fires:
Alaska (33)
Arizona (3)
California (1)
Colorado (1)
Nevada (1)
New Mexico (4)
Utah (1)

https://www.nifc.gov/fireInfo/nfn.htm
__________________
~ Greetings from Tatooine ~
St. Phatty is offline Quote


2 members found this post helpful.
Old 06-30-2019, 09:22 PM #2239
trichrider
THEORETICAL

trichrider's Avatar

Join Date: Apr 2010
Location: between CB1 and the singularity.
Posts: 7,328
trichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond repute
Russia plans to tow a nuclear power station to the Arctic. Critics dub it a 'floating Chernobyl'
By Mary Ilyushina, CNN
Updated 0241 GMT (1041 HKT) June 29, 2019

Akademik Lomonosov prepares to sail from Murmansk to Pevek in Russia's Far East.

Murmansk, Russia (CNN)Next month, a floating nuclear power plant called the Akademik Lomonosov will be towed via the Northern Sea Route to its final destination in the Far East, after almost two decades in construction.

It's part of Russia's ambition to bring electric power to a mineral-rich region. The 144-meter (472 feet) long platform painted in the colors of the Russian flag is going to float next to a small Arctic port town of Pevek, some 4,000 miles away from Moscow. It will supply electricity to settlements and companies extracting hydrocarbons and precious stones in the Chukotka region.
A larger agenda is at work too: aiding President Vladimir Putin's ambitious Arctic expansion plans, which have raised geopolitical concerns in the United States.

The Admiral Lomonosov will be the northernmost operating nuclear plant in the world, and it's key to plans to develop the region economically. About 2 million Russians reside near the Arctic coast in villages and towns similar to Pevek, settlements that are often reachable only by plane or ship, if the weather permits. But they generate as much as 20% of country's GDP and are key for Russian plans to tap into the hidden Arctic riches of oil and gas as Siberian reserves diminish.

In theory, floating nuclear power plants could help supply energy to remote areas without long-term commitments -- or requiring large investments into conventional power stations on mostly uninhabitable land.
But the concept of a nuclear reactor stationed in the Arctic Sea has drawn criticism from environmentalists. The Lomonosov platform was dubbed "Chernobyl on Ice" or "floating Chernobyl" by Greenpeace even before the public's revived interest in the 1986 catastrophe thanks in large part to the HBO TV series of the same name Rosatom, the state company in charge of Russia's nuclear projects, has been fighting against this nickname, saying such criticism is ill founded.
View outside of Akademik Lomonosov's main deck.

"It's totally not justified to compare these two projects. These are baseless claims, just the way the reactors themselves operate work is different," said Vladimir Iriminku, Lomonosov's chief engineer for environmental protection. "Of course, what happened in Chernobyl cannot happen again.... And as it's going to be stationed in the Arctic waters, it will be cooling down constantly, and there is no lack of cold water."


The idea itself is not new -- the US Army used a small nuclear reactor installed on a ship in the Panama Canal for almost a decade in the 1960s. For civil purposes, an American energy company PSE&G commissioned a floating plant to be stationed off the coast of New Jersey, but the project was halted in the 1970s due to public opposition and environmental concerns.


Russia's civilian nuclear industry also faced public questions following the Chernobyl catastrophe, which shaped concerns about "the peaceful atom" for decades to follow. Construction of dozens of nuclear plants stopped, affecting not only massive Chernobyl-scale projects but also slowing down the use of low-power reactors like the one in what would become the floating station (The Chernobyl plant produced up to 4,000 megawatts. Lomonosov has two reactors producing 35 megawatts each).
The control center of the Akademik Lomonosov floating nuclear platform.

"These reactors were initially to be used within city limits, but unfortunately the Chernobyl incident hindered that," said Iriminku. "Our citizens, especially if they are not technically savvy, don't really understand the nuclear energy and that these stations are built differently, so it's almost impossible to explain that to them."
The explosion at Chernobyl directly caused around 31 deaths, but millions of people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels.
The final death toll as a result of long-term radiation exposure is much disputed. Although the UN predicted up to 9,000 related cancer deaths back in 2005, Greenpeace later estimated up to 200,000 fatalities, taking further health problems connected to the disaster into account.


Modern Russia hasn't seen anything close to Chernobyl though. Russia, a major oil and gas producer, also operates several nuclear power stations. The state atomic energy corporation Rosatom has long maintained that its industrial record is one of reliability and safety, and that its reactors have been modernized and upgraded.



But rather than summoning the specter of Chernobyl, some nuclear watchdogs are drawing parallels to the 2011 accident at Fukushima in Japan, with the images of its waterlogged reactors still fresh in the public memory. The Russian plant's main benefits -- mobility and ability to work in remote regions -- complicate some crucial security procedures, from routine disposal of the nuclear fuel to rescue operations in the event the platform is hit by a massive wave.
A worker finishes construction inside the platform's facilities.

But project engineers say they've learned the lessons of Fukushima.
"This rig can't be torn out of moorings, even with a 9-point tsunami, and we've even considered that if it does go inland, there is a backup system that can keep the reactor cooling for 24 hours without an electricity supply," said Dmitry Alekseenko, deputy director of the Lomonosov plant.


However, experts of Bellona, an NGO monitoring nuclear projects and environmental impacts, say 24 hours might not be enough to prevent a disaster should a tsunami land the rig among towns with two active nuclear reactors aboard.
Akademik Lomonosov rests in St. Petersburg before it was brought to Murmansk to be filled with nuclear fuel.

And then there is the question of cost. Some Russian officials have questioned the floating reactor complex's price tag of an estimated $450 million, saying it would need to enter serial production to be economically viable. Rosatom has been working to attract clients from Asia, Africa and South America to purchase next iterations of Akademik Lomonosov, but has yet to announce any deals.


The last Russian nuclear project of a comparable scale was completed in 2007, when the "50 Years of Victory" nuclear-powered icebreaker finally sailed after sitting in the docks since 1989. Now, after more than 20 years of arguments, changes of contractors and economic crises, Russian engineers can finally take pride in launching the world's only nuclear floating rig.


https://edition.cnn.com/2019/06/28/e...ntl/index.html
__________________
"I'm not always a dick...but when I am, I drink cheap beer".

trichrider is offline Quote


1 members found this post helpful.
Old 06-30-2019, 09:33 PM #2240
trichrider
THEORETICAL

trichrider's Avatar

Join Date: Apr 2010
Location: between CB1 and the singularity.
Posts: 7,328
trichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond reputetrichrider has a reputation beyond repute
June 2019 ENSO Blog Update: Concentrate and ask again
Author:
Emily Becker
June 13, 2019

Our El Niño is still hanging around, and forecasters think it’s likely to stay through the summer. What happens after that is less clear, though, with about a 50% chance of El Niño continuing through the fall and winter.


Things as they are

The sea surface temperature across much of the tropical Pacific is still warmer than average, with the Niño3.4 Index coming in at 0.64°C above average during May (via ERSSTv5).


May 2019 sea surface temperature departure from the 1981-2010 average. Image from Data Snapshots on Climate.gov; data from NOAA’s Environmental Visualization Lab.

The atmosphere also reflected weak El Niño during May, and both the Southern Oscillation Index the Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index were moderately negative. When these indexes are negative, it means the surface air pressure over the far western Pacific is higher than average (more sinking air) and the surface air pressure over the central-eastern Pacific is lower than average (more rising air), indicative of a weakened Walker circulation.

Things that were

Speaking of the Niño3.4 index—it’s been just bumping along between 0.5° and 1°C above average for several months in a row. This behavior is fairly unusual.


Monthly sea surface temperature in the Niño 3.4 region of the tropical Pacific for 2018–19 (purple line) and all other El Niño years since 1950. Climate.gov graph based on ERSSTv5 temperature data.

Of the 23 El Niño winters in our historical record (dating back to 1950), nine persisted into March–May. Six of those were stronger El Niños, with the three-month-average Niño3.4 Index (the “Oceanic Niño Index” or ONI) peaking at 1.5°C or more above average.


Two winters, 1968–69 and 1986–87, featured a peak ONI of 1.1°C and 1.2°C (respectively) and persisted into the spring. Only once before now has the ONI remained above 0.5°C but less than 1°C above average throughout the winter and lasted into the spring: 2014–15. In that instance, March 2015 was technically the start of the great El Niño of 2015-16.



These three cases were all followed by El Niño the next winter. The predictive value of this factoid is not large, though, and I’m really just providing you fodder for your next very esoteric trivia night. You can revisit Tony’s excellent post from 2014 for an explanation of why past is not prologue, but essentially, the ocean/atmosphere system is so complex that from year to year, even if some elements (like the ONI) look the same, there are many, many other differences. These differences mean that conditions will develop differently, leading to unique futures. My favorite part of Tony’s post is that it would take approximately one trillion quintillion years for nature to repeat itself!


Hints of what’s to come

So what has more predictive power? To develop the most complete picture of how conditions in the tropical Pacific might develop over the next several months, ENSO forecasters study current conditions and dynamical and statistical computer models. (From the grimaces I sometimes see after forecasters consider the latest model runs, I suspect some of us consult soothsayers, as well…)
Near-term, one of the conditions we look at is how the winds near the surface of the tropical Pacific—the trade winds—are behaving. The trade winds normally blow steadily east-to-west, keeping warm water piled up near Indonesia. When they slow down, that warm water can begin to slide eastward under the surface—a downwelling Kelvin wave—transferring warmer waters to the east. This warm wave eventually rises to the surface, reinforcing the El Niño. Throughout most of May, the trade winds were weaker than average.


Near-surface wind anomalies over the tropical Pacific (5°N-5°S) during 2018, starting at the top in December 2018 and ending in early June 2019 at the bottom. Each row in this type of image is the departure from average (1981-2010) at that time. Pink areas show weaker-than-average trade winds, and green stronger. NOAA Climate.gov image, based on data provided by the Climate Prediction Center.

The effect of these weaker winds can be seen in the recent increase of warmer-than-average water under the surface of the tropical Pacific, as a new downwelling Kelvin wave has formed. (But not a Kelvin wave of cinematic proportions.)


Area-averaged upper-ocean temperature anomaly (°C) in the equatorial Pacific (5°N-5°S, 180º-100ºW). The anomaly is computed as the departure from the 1981-2010 base period pentad (5-day) means. Upper ocean temperature anomalies were nearly average at the start of May, but anomalies increased toward the end of the month in association with a downwelling Kelvin wave. CPC figure.

Over the next few months, this Kelvin wave will likely (66% chance!) supply the surface with the warmer-than-average water required to continue El Niño through the summer. Since the end of May, the trade winds have strengthened, mostly due to an active Madden-Julian Oscillation. The MJO has been distracting the tropical Pacific before and during this El Niño, providing “subseasonal variability” (changes in the atmospheric pattern on timescales of weeks).


For an idea of the longer term, we can look to computer models. Overall, the models in the current forecast predict that the Niño3.4 Index will stay near to slightly above the El Niño threshold of 0.5°C warmer than average. Some models are in the ENSO-neutral range, around average. It’s interesting that nearly all of the models remain between 0.0 and +1.0°C through the fall and into the winter; this level of agreement between the models would usually contribute to more confidence in the forecast. However, the mix of predictions above and below the El Niño threshold means that, while El Niño is the favorite for next winter, forecasters are giving it only a 50% chance at this point.
Stay with us while we surf the Kelvin waves and sail the trade winds, and we’ll keep you updated on all things ENSO!


https://www.climate.gov/news-feature...-and-ask-again


__________________
"I'm not always a dick...but when I am, I drink cheap beer".

trichrider is offline Quote


Post Reply

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 06:54 AM.




This site is for educational and entertainment purposes only.
You must be of legal age to view ICmag and participate here.
All postings are the responsibility of their authors.
Powered by: vBulletin Copyright ©2000 - 2019, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.