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Old 02-24-2018, 06:51 PM #11
Kankakee
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Etienne de Meijer and the IHA

Let me compliment you on your thorough discussion of breeding genealogies in the December issue of the Journal of the International Hemp Association. You drew your discussion of Lyster Dewey's breeding from the 1927 piece, which means you did not mention the last cultivar which was his crowning accomplishment, ‘Chinamington’. Writing retrospectively after his retirement in 1935 (his program was terminated in '33), Dewey wrote of Chinamington: "The hemp breeding work, carried on by the Bureau for more than 20 years, was discontinued in 1933, but practical results are still evident in commercial fields. A hemp grower in Kentucky reported a yield of 1,750 pounds per acre of clean, dew-retted fiber from 100 acres of the pedigreed variety ‘Chinamington’ grown in 1934. This is more than twice the average yield obtained from ordinary unselected hemp seed."

I was told by Dr. Bocsa of the GATE Research Institute at Kompolt in Hungary, that Dewey sent Chinamington to Fleischmann (the founder and director of the GATE Institute from 1918 to 1951) and that it was used as one side of the first hemp hybrid, the other side was Kompolti. Dr. Bocsa said that Chinamington was later than Kompolti and photoperiod manipulation was required to make the cross, so it was not amenable to large scale production, but the hybrid grew quite tall. Of course, ‘Chinamington’, as the entire Kentucky Hemp lineage, is lost. ....."
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Old 02-24-2018, 07:24 PM #12
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Another thing lost on most biotic / abiotic stresses that develop from indoor growing. not using greenhouses or naturally grown outdoors.

Natural abilities lost against pest, quality, yields, vigor in further generations as it nears the F10 generation of breeding and can produce crop failure. As witnessed in corn etc etc. European hemp has been documented to have lost 30% in yield when grown outside of its natural ecosystem. And like I've stated before the EIHA / European Industrial Hemp Assoc. was very worried about quality degradation because of bottleneck inbreeding and using techniques besides natural male / female selection that has also affected quality, they themselves stated these facts / warnings starting in 1998 ....

Because many assumed many qualities would be lost in a fiber line without continual high density planting. As I came upon my find all these assumptions destroyed in seconds as the 14-17fters towered in the distance. And the height is extremely important for farming as yield per square meter quantities explode upward.

I have also sourced a s.w. asian hemp variety for outcrossing. But these genetics are at a much lower latitude and will need a greenhouse for selection and bulking line.

This line after being developed by Lyster Dewey has then developed over seventy years plus. The advantage of natural selection and developing natural defense against pathogens at 42º latitude situated in the midwest also a big plus. The bud rot, black leaf spot disease ( that just started attacking cannabis in the midwest ) etc .... can destroy a european or other hemp hybrids in high humidity and entering a new ecosystem is not well understood.

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Old 02-25-2018, 01:02 AM #13
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Journal of the International Hemp Association- 1994

Prof. Dr. Ivan Bocsa:

"The natural state in which hemp appears was and is dioecious. Monoeciousness is artificial in hemp, and it can only exist with the help of man, and without selection, the dioecious state will return in two or three generations. It is therefore very hard and demanding to keep 90 to 95% monoeciousness during seed multiplications. Apart from that, however, monoecious hemp is appropriate only when the crop is grown for so-called double use, i.e., when both stem and seed are harvested... In a dioecious crop, the male plants will be strongly deteriorated when the crop is harvested at seed ripeness, so in this case one needs monoecious cultivars. In Hungary... this double use is unknown. Here fibre hemp is grown as a dense crop which is harvested at the time of male flowering (‘green hemp’), while the seed production takes place in crops grown at a low plant density and with completely different growing techniques. Furthermore, monoeciousness has two large disadvantages. In the first place... we have established that 20-25% of self-pollination takes place in monoecious hemp, and this is the cause of... [10-20%] lower stem yield. In the second place, in monoecious hemp, the genetic progress for fibre content is slow, because the so-called Bredemann principle cannot be used. The Bredemann principle consists of the rapid determination of fibre content in male plants before they flower, so that only the males with the highest fibre content are allowed to pollinate the female plants... In monoecious hemp this approach cannot be used, so the rate of genetic progress is only 50% or less of that in dioecious hemp. In spite of these disadvantages, we use a monoecious hemp cultivar in breeding, but only as a parent for unisexual hemp. V.P. Soroka studied the formation of male reproductive system in monoecious and dioecious hemp, and reported that the differences between them at very stage of growth prove that dioecious hemp is biologically superior.

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Old 02-25-2018, 01:10 AM #14
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The Bredemann Principle:

According to the recommended method, just before budding commences, the stalks of hundreds of male plants are vertically cut in half and the bark is stripped off. The stems are boiled for 3/4 hour in 1.5% NaOH solution, to soften the woody matter. The latter is removed mechanically, care being exercised to avoid loss of fiber. The fibrous mass is then boiled again with dilute NaOH solution, washed, dried and weighed. The woody matter may be weighed or detected by difference. As the resulting fibers are purified more than those of commerce, the weight of hemp so found should be multiplied by 1.25 before computing percentages. The testing must be performed within a narrow window of only a few days, because the plants will quickly proceed to the flowering stage. Only those males with a high fiber content are allowed to flower; the others are culled. The Bredemann method thus enables breeders to increase the fiber yield of dioecious hemp to 35% within a few generations. The fiber content of stems is determined by sampling numerous plants from a zone situated between points 30-40% up the stem. In practice, find the middle of the stem and cut from that point downward 15%. After retting or mechanical decortication, the correlative standard of the fiber content is calculated from two weighings of the dry weight of the bark divided by the dry weight of the stem. The production index of bark fiber content makes it possible to calculate the amount of bark per unit of stem surface, and to discover which parents are productive of dry matter and rich in fiber. The index is derived from the ratio of dry weight of bark to the surface of stem (obtained from the product of height times the median diameter).

H. Neuer, R. von Sengbusch, and H. Prieger:

The stems are cut into 2 or 3 pieces, and 100 such pieces are put in special frames in which the stems of each individual plant are isolated. In these frames the stems are boiled in 0.25% NaOH for 30 minutes. The bast is removed and put in sieve-boxes which are shaken by machine for 1 hour in 2% NaOH with an addition of Persil. The individual fibers are isolated by the shaking and the perenchymous tissue is pulverized. After shaking, the fibers are washed, dried and weighed. The values so obtained are somewhat too high. For the selection of the different stem weights the fiber content classes are detected by investigating 10 plants. For each weight class the mean fiber content is ascertained and only those plants selected whose fiber content is above the mean of the corresponding weight class. Furthermore, the quantity of fibers is recorded in relation to the surface of the stem. A correlation table for fiber weight to surface of stem is made and all plants with high fiber content are examined with the aid of this second table to eliminate plants with low percentage of wood. In the course of the investigation this method was further developed. In order to find plants with many fibers, plants with high bast content must be selected: the stems are cooked for 30 minutes in 0.25% NaOH, and the bast is removed, washed, dried and weighed. The plants with high bast content are investigated as to fiber content to eliminate plants with high bast but low fiber content. The bast is cooked in 2% NaOH for 3 hours, washed, dried and weighed. By this method it is possible to investigate in the same time twice as many plants as by the first method. Comparative investigations with the different methods proved that generally high bast content corresponds to high fiber content, but that individual plants with high bast content may have few fibers. These two methods do not make it possible to investigate a very great number of plants; von Sengbusch therefore developed a microscopic method for the examination of the bast- and fiber-structure; stem cutting 3-4 cm long are put in water for 5 minutes until the bast is thoroughly soaked. The cutting then is intensively lighted, but the upper part is darkened. By this manner of illumination the parenchymous tissue remains dark, while the fiber cells show clearly. The stems are investigated by binocular microscope (50x). Plants with a thick bast layer containing many fibers are selected and investigated, by the previously described methods, as to bast- and fiber-content. Only the plants with the highest fiber content are propagated.

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Old 02-25-2018, 01:51 AM #15
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Lyster H. Dewey - " Botanical Study of Hemp " 1913

The hemp plant, Cannabis sativa L., is an annual, growing each year from the seed. It has a rigid, herbaceous stalk, attaining a height of 1 to 5 meters (3 to 16 ft), obtusely 4-cornered, more or less fluted or channeled, and with well-marked nodes at intervals of 10 to 50 cm (4 to 20 in). When not crowded it has numerous spreading branches, and the central stalk attains a thickness of 3 to 6 cm (1 to 2 in), with a rough bark near the base. If crowded, as when sown broadcast for fiber, the fluted stems are without branches or foliage except at the top or on the shortened branches, appearing fascicled, are palmately compound and composed of 5 to 11 --- usually 7 --- leaflets. The leaflets are dark green, lighter below, lanceolate, pointed at both ends, serrate, 5 to 15 cm (2 to 6 in) long, and 1 to 2 cm (3/8 to 3/4 in) wide. Hemp is dioecious, the staminate or pollen-bearing flowers and the pistillate or seed-producing flowers being borne on separate plants. The staminate plants are borne in small axillary panicles, and consists of five greenish yellow or purplish sepals opening wide at maturity and disclosing five stamens which discharge abundant yellow pollen. The pistillate flowers are stemless and solitary in the axils of the small leaves near the ends of the branches, often crowded so as to appear like a thin spike. The pistillate flower is inconspicuous, consisting of a thin, entire, green calyx, pointed, with a slit at one side, but remaining nearly closed over the ovary and merely permitting the two small stigmas to protrude at the apex. The ovary is one seeded, developing into a smooth, compressed or nearly spherical achene (the "seed"), 2.5 to 4 mm (1/10 to 3/16 in) thick and 3 to 6 mm (1/8 to 1/4 in) long, from dark gray to light brown in color and mottled, The seeds cleaned for market nearly always include some still covered with green, gummy calyx. The seeds vary in weight from 0.008 to 0.027 gram, the dark-colored seeds being generally much heavier than the light-colored seeds of the same sample. The light-colored seeds are often imperfectly developed. Dark-colored and distinctly mottled seeds are generally preferred. The staminate plants are often called the flowering hemp, since the pistillate flowers are rarely observed. The staminate plants die after the pollen is shed, but the pistillate plants remain alive and green two months later, or until the seeds fully developed.

The hemp stalk is hollow, and in the best fiber-producing types the hollow space occupies at least one-half the diameter. The hollow space is widest, or the surrounding shell thinnest, about midway between the base and the top of the plant. The woody shell is thickened at each node, dividing the hollow space into a series of partly separated compartments. If the stalk is cut crosswise a layer of pith, or thin-walled tissue, is found next to the hollow center, and outside of this a layer of wood composed of hard, thick-walled cells. This layer, which forms the "hurds", is a very thin shell in the best fiber-producing varieties. It extends clear across the stem below the lowest node, and in large, coarse stalks grown in the open it is much thicker and the central hollow relatively smaller. Outside of the hard woody portion is the soft cambium, or growing tissue, the cells of which develop into the wood on the inside, or into the bast and the bark on the outside. It is chiefly through this cambium layer that the fiber-bearing bast splits away from the wood in the processes of retting and breaking. Outside of this cambium is the inner bark, or bast, comprising short, thin-walled cells filled with chlorophyll, giving it a green color, and long thick-walled cells, making the bast fibers. These bast fibers are of two kinds, the smaller ones (secondary bast fibers) toward the inner portion making up rather short, fine fibers, many of which adhere to the wood or hurds when the hemp is broken, and the coarser ones (primary bast fibers) toward the outer part, extending nearly throughout the length of the stalk. Outside of the primary bast fiber is a continuation of the thin-walled stalk, chlorophyll-bearing cells free from fiber, and surrounding all is the thin bark.

The hemp fiber of commerce is composed of the primary bast fibers, with some adherent bark and also some secondary bast fiber. The bast fibers consist of numerous long, overlapping, thick-walled cells with long, tapering ends. The individual cells, almost too small to be seen by the unaided eye, are 0.015 to 0.05 mm (3/1000 to 12/1000 in) in diameter, and 5 to 55 mm (3/6 to 2-1/8 in) long. Some of the bast fibers extend through the length of the stalk, but some are branched, and some terminate at each node. They are weakest at the nodes.

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Old 02-26-2018, 06:45 PM #16
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very interesting project, what fun to grow 17 foot tall plants. this business is gonna explode in the next years as all the uses are re discovered and new uses are discovered. i knew about a kind of marble produced from hemp, but hemp-based carbon nanosheets is a whole new level of useful. not sure i got the energy storage part, but slowly nothing can surprise me anymore when it comes to our lady cannabis, lol.
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Old 02-26-2018, 07:41 PM #17
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When I first started my search a few years ago. It was more moving away from flower as many are focused upon this already. Europeans are at the forefront of discovery as even tiny Slovenia is building its economy around hemp today in many ways. The french with retting discoveries, in Canada with researching and R & D .... So I will select towards Lyster Dewey's goals of height and node spacing. Then see how thing unfold from that.

I have a few seed lines collected from feral hemp much shorter and will not focus on these lines at all. I guess I could bulk that line also and donate those to forum and maybe others could work them further and find different uses..... ? I was luck as this farm I found was massive and had these natural borders of corn kept within the same family and near barns centered on property.Its the only reason this patch stayed unmolested. The other lines i'm not sure about but im sure still hold value in some ways. One thing I found interesting was the limited amount of trichome on the fiber line Chinamington flower set. And the lack of stickiness when handling the flowers when de-seeding. After cleaning the flower of seed ( many hours ) I washed the resin off in seconds with normal soap and was not dark like finger hash from regular thc flowers.

I spent thousands of hours searching the back roads across Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin.... lots of fuel and milage Lol'. Always questioning the assumption the USDA genetics lost.

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Old 02-27-2018, 09:26 AM #18
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It sounds interesting if you can breed those varieties back to what it was.Development of new industrial uses is still lacking here in Europe imo.
Hemp seed as superfood exploded the last few years, but a normal pack of 500 sheets hemp paper is hardly to find in the store, the same for clothes to name some items.
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Old 02-27-2018, 12:03 PM #19
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we have here some fields with fiber, seed and oil varieties, bred under strict law, thc/cbd is under 0.2 % as i remember, mostly they are using the legacy of Bócsa..
kompolti, kc virtus, fibrol (inbred of a kompolti line for oil production) ...etc

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Old 02-27-2018, 12:06 PM #20
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Any info about the variety Tiborszallasi ?
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