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Biological control for Powdery Mildew! Thread Tools Search this Thread
Old 11-12-2017, 07:07 PM #1
oldbootz
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Cool Biological control for Powdery Mildew!

Hi guys and gals,

So I have been battling the mildew for a while and my friend came across this product sold at a specialist gardening shop. We have been using it and its pretty damn impressive!

Ampelomyces Quisqualis

Ampelomyces quisqualis is an indigenous fungal isolate to South Africa, and a hyper parasite to the common Powdery Mildew.

Active ingredients
Ampelomyces quisqualis

Direction for use:
•Dosage: 400 g AQ-SF / 1 ha





Application:



Wash spray tank thoroughly to remove all traces of chemicals and fill with water (pH 6.0 – 7.3). Half fill a 10 liter bucket with water (pH 6.0 – 7.3) and empty sachets into water while stirring. The carrier medium (diatomaceous earth) may block nozzles and should therefore stay behind while emptying bucket into spray tank. Repeat at least three times. Add a light mineral oil (0.3% of tank mix). Wet plants thoroughly. Apply early morning or late afternoon. Do not spray if air temperature rises above 30o C or when the relative humidity is lower than 30%. High humidity is conductive to the effectivity of the fungus.

.

Safety precaution
If spilled on skin, rinse with water. Keep out of reach of children and uninformed persons.

General information
• No withholding period.
• Do not apply with sulphur and other fungicides (consult your agent).
• Can be applied with copper – use in a programme.
• Do not leave product lying in sunlight.
• Do not leave spray material over night – spray within 5 hours after mixing.

Pesticide Information Profile
Product: AQ-SF
Active(s): Ampelomyces quisqualis
Toxicity: PAN Bad Actor Chemical: No
Health risks human
Acute: None
Chronic: None
Carcenogenisis: No
Cholinesterate inhibitor: No

References: https://www.epa.gov

Environmental Impact:
General: Naturally occurring fungus, not infective for mammals and birds
Fish: None
Groundwater: None

Minimum Risk Levels (MRLs)
Expected residue concentration per applied cm2: < 1×104 spores / cm2
Expected time of complete breakdown of actives: natural occuring, killed by fungicides
Withholding period on crop peeled to be eaten: None
Withholding period on crop eaten as harvested: None (wash before eating)
MRLs by Codex Alimarius : Not included
The fungus is not toxic or infective and exposure to the public and the environment will be minimal to
non-existent.
Exempted from tolerances.

References: https://www.hort.uconn.edu; https://www.entomology.wise.edu;https:...ce.cornell.edu
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Old 11-12-2017, 07:11 PM #2
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Wiki:

Ampelomyces quisqualis is an anamorphic fungus that is a hyperparasite of powdery mildews. This parasitism reduces growth and may eventually kill the mildew, so investigations on biological control of powdery mildews (especially in high-value crops such as grapes) have taken place for over 50 years, resulting in the development of products such as 'AQ10'.
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Old 11-12-2017, 07:12 PM #3
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Cornell University:

Ampelomyces quisqualis
(Deuteromycetes)

by David Gadoury, Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University-NYSAES, Geneva NY

The fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis is a naturally occurring hyperparasite of powdery mildews. It infects and forms pycnidia (fruiting bodies) within powdery mildew hyphae, conidiophores (specialized spore-producing hyphae), and cleistothecia (the closed fruiting bodies of powdery mildews). This parasitism reduces growth and may eventually kill the mildew colony. A. quisqualis has been the subject of numerous investigations on biological control of powdery mildews for over 50 years.



Appearance

Parasitized mildew colonies are dull, flattened, and off-white to gray in color. Spore production of the powdery mildew is reduced or absent in parasitized areas of the colony. Dead leaf tissue may be adjacent to parasitized areas of the mildew colony, as the outer leaf tissues die in response to death of the contained powdery mildew cells.

The pycnidia of A. quisqualis vary in shape depending upon the organ in which they form. Within conidiophores they are pear-shaped, within hyphae they are spindle-shaped, and within cleistothecia they may be nearly spherical.

Uninfected hyphae and conidiophores of powdery mildews are transparent, but turn translucent-white soon after infection. Once the mycoparasite has begun to produce pycnidia, the hyphae and conidiophores swell to several times their normal diameter, and the amber color of the pycnidial wall of the mycoparasite may be noticed through the cell walls of the host.

Parasitized cleistothecia are typically dull, fawn colored, flaccid, and range in size from 64 to 130 micrometers in diameter. Pycnidia contain cylindrical to spindle-shaped, occasionally curved, and two-spotted conidia that are 7.5-9.0 X 2.5-3.5 micrometers. The conidia may be exuded when parasitized tissues are exposed to free water or humidity near saturation.



Habitat (Crops)

A. quisqualis exists in colonies wherever its many hosts are distributed.



Pests Attacked

The mycoparasite is specific to powdery mildews (Erysiphales), but has an extremely broad host range within this diverse group of important plant pathogens. It has been recorded on more than 64 species in the genera Brasilomyces, Erysiphe, Leveillula, Microsphaera, Phyllactinia, Podosphaera, Sphaerotheca, and Uncinula, as well as the anamorphic genera Oï dium and Oï diopsis. These reports represent powdery mildews which attack 256 plant species within 172 genera in 59 families, and which occur in 28 countries around the world.



Life Cycle

The pathogen overwinters or survives intercrop periods as pycnidia. The relative importance of pycnidia within different host structures (i.e., hyphae vs conidiophores vs cleistothecia) as survival structures is unknown. When it rains, conidia are exuded from the ripe pycnidia and are dispersed by rain-splash to mildew colonies. Free water is required for infection, and infection is favored by warm temperatures (20-30° C). Under favorable conditions, infection can occur in less than 24 hours.

The mycoparasite directly penetrates the walls of hyphae, conidiophores, and immature cleistothecia, but may be unable to infect mature cleistothecia. For approximately 7-10 days, the mycoparasite spreads within the hyphae of the mildew colony without killing it. Thereafter, the process of pycnidial formation begins, and is then completed within 2-4 days. Infected cells generally die soon after pycnidial formation begins. Secondary cycles of infection result from conidia released during subsequent rain events.

Several generations may occur during a single growing season.



Relative effectiveness

Efficacy in controlling powdery mildews has been quite variable. The fact that some powdery mildew must be present to serve as a base of establishment for the mycoparasite makes this a less than ideal means to control powdery mildews on crops with no tolerance for disease (either extremely high susceptibility, high value, no tolerance for defects, or all of the foregoing). However, a number of examples of acceptable disease control have been reported for greenhouse and field-grown vegetable crops. Repeated applications of the mycoparasite are generally necessary, and high humidity and rainfall aid in spread to developing mildew colonies.



Pesticide susceptibility

Isolates differ in their susceptibility to fungicides. However, isolates tolerant to many of the most commonly used fungicides have been collected and are available for use. Susceptibility to other pesticides is poorly understood.



Conservation

A. quisqualis may survive in parasitized cleistothecia on the bark of deciduous perennial hosts, as well as on colonies on fallen leaves and crop debris. However, reintroduction on an annual basis is likely to be necessary for commercially acceptable disease control in annual or greenhouse crops.



Commercial Availability

A formulated powder containing A. quisqualis is available from Ecogen Corporation and is marketed under the trade name AQ10.



References

Falk, S.P., Gadoury, D.M., Pearson, R.C., and Seem. R.C. 1995. Partial control of grape powdery mildew by the mycoparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis. Plant Dis. 79:483-490.

Falk, S.P., Gadoury, D.M., Cortesi, P., Pearson, R.C., and Seem, R.C. 1995. Parasitism of Uncinula necator cleistothecia by the mycoparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis. Phytopathology 85:794-800.
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Old 11-13-2017, 06:34 PM #4
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Has anyone used this? I cant be the first one here to try it...
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Old 11-13-2017, 06:44 PM #5
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Are you adding mineral oil? How frequently are you applying?

Mineral oil has been shown to control some fungal infections on a variety of plants. Likely a beneficial adjuvant.
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Old 11-13-2017, 08:22 PM #6
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So far we applied once at the recommended rate with no other things added. Within two weeks there was no PM left.
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Old 11-13-2017, 10:52 PM #7
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I have heard about this, or something similar, it is not legal in Europe IIRC otherwise I would be all over it.
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Old 11-15-2017, 04:07 AM #8
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Tried searching for this in the states and i couldnt find it anywhere, anyone know of a source?
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Old 11-15-2017, 07:52 AM #9
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Try this brand name maybe
Quote:
Ecogen Corporation and is marketed under the trade name AQ10.
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Old 11-15-2017, 03:46 PM #10
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AQ10
is the name of the product.
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