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Old 03-25-2013, 05:33 AM #1
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Organic Pest/Dieases IPM 101

This thread is made to help newcomers and the experienced put together a pest/disease management system that will help deter and stop attacks before they happen. It will also provide recipes, summary information and links for you to further study if you wish.

So many gardeners deal with pest/disease issues when its too late. The invaders has locked on to your garden, started multiplying and even if you do gain back the upper hand, you are left with plant that has lost vigor, nutrients and vitality that will show itself in your harvest.

So what do we do? We get proactive!!!!
How do we get proactive? From the moment you start building your soil!!

Soil Amendments


Crab Meal
Crab meal is kiln dried shell of crabs (obviously!!) that is pulverized to a fine dust. It provides a good source of Ca and N but it also contains a protein called chitin and this is what we are after. (The fertilizer capabilities are awesome but we are talking IPM points here.)
Chitin has been shown to signal the plant to ramp up its internal defense mechanism. The chitin induced defense response is important because ironically chitin is one of the sources in most fungal and insect pathogens. Basically your plant is gearing up for the fight against the bad guys. And that's what I call proactive!!

Links
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2634388/
https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajb.2011.29.37

Wiki Quote
Most recent studies point out that chitin is a good inducer for defense mechanisms in plants
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitin

Usage
1/2 cup to 1 cup per cubic foot

Side note
Did you know that barley seeds contains chitinases which aids as a defense protien?
https://www.researchgate.net/publicat..._of_Imbibition

Neem Meal
Neem meal is the byproduct of extracting neem oil from the neem seed kernels. In the neem meal lies a component named azadirachtin. Azadirachtin disturbs hormones that control the insects ability to reproduce, molt, mate, and feed.
For other insects its smell can act as a deterrent. Enough said..

Links
https://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/neemgen.html
https://www.jbiopest.com/users/LW8/ef...5_0_72_76F.pdf

Wiki Quote
Neem cake is effective in the management of insects and pests. The bitter principles of the soil and cake have been reported to have seven types of activities (a) antifeedant (b) attractant (c) repellent (d) insecticide (e) nematicide (f) growth disruptor and (g) antimicrobial.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neem_cake

Usage
1/4 cup to 1 cup per cubic foot

Side Note
Karanja meal is very similar to Neem meal and can be used as a replacement.

These two fine soil amendments are great and do work proactively to protect your garden (particularly soil dwellers) but you must remember you need a system in place to further deter and control any unwanted insects. This is where we come to our next post... Foilars sprays!!
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Old 03-25-2013, 05:53 AM #2
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Awesome post, Neo420 ...too bad about the 'must spread rep' thing, AND the 'no more voting on threads today' thing. . Damn

It definitely pays to prevent a problem(proactive), as you said, rather than to react to the problem(reactive)...by then its late...sometimes too late.
And the facts about neem, the sources..and the bit about barley containing chitinase...gotta look that one up, but the word looks promising!(enzymes?)

I kind of knew about karanja, but found out about thits interchangability with neem seed meal just a couple weeks ago, because there is, allegedly, a shotage of neem cake(whether just in usa, or in India-or wherever its from..) right now, and karanja was a suitable replacement
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Old 03-25-2013, 06:12 AM #3
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A few posts from old cootz...

Pesticide Sprays

Quote:
So while you're at Whole Foods pick-up Cilantro (organic ONLY) and when you get home toss the entire bunch (sans the tie around the middle) into a food processor with enough water to make a slurry or puree.

Add this to 1 gallon of clear water and let it sit for 36 - 48 hours. No more than this.

Add 1 cup of strained Cilantro tea to 15 cups of water = 1 gallon. Allow for 1/4 cup of Aloe vera juice and use 1 tsp. of Pro-TeKt.

Wait until the it's almost "light's out" and spray the top of the soil, every branch, every leaf from top to bottom. You want the plant to look like you haven't watered in several days and it's drooping big time.

Leave the ventilation system going and by morning you won't have anything hopping, flying, whatever in your chamber. Follow this up every 4 days until you're completed 4 applications.

Done. Finis. Ovah.

This is not a pesticide in the usual definition and without a long explanation you might need to trust me on this one - I apply this and other 'Mint' teas to hydrate the soil every couple of weeks.

"Bio Stimulants"

If you're concerned then pick-up a couple of throw-away plants at Home Depot - Marigolds are a good one. Water this plant with your Cilantro mix and see for yourself.

HTH

CC

Quote:
Mix 4 oz. Spinosad to 1 gallon water. Add 1/4 Aloe vera and 2 tsp. of Pro-TeKt

Spray every 72 hours until you have completed 4 applications.

All Spinosad products come from one manufacturer - Eli Lilly. They have licensed Bonide to pack this under their name "Captain Jack's Deadbug Brew" which is around $20.00 for 16 oz, i.e. 4 applications.

The other licensee is Monterey Garden Products which they sell as 'Monterey Garden Products Spinosad Concentrate' and it's 32 oz. for $22.00 so it's 1/2 the price as the grow store product - as usual.

Monterey Gardens also has a ready-to-use Spinosad spray - worthless.

Because Spinosad is a bacteria culture and not a plant compound (Linalool, Camphor, etc.) it is not subject to breakdown from light and air and therefore remains on the plant's leaves and branches longer making it very effective by causing the insect's nervous system to go into hyperactivity preventing them from eating, reproducing, etc.

Works well......

CC
Preventative Spray...1-2x per week

Quote:
4 tsp. of organic neem oil
2 tsp. of Pro-TeKt

I mix this in a shot glass until it's completely emulsified.

I add this to 1 gallon of tepid water - you want around 70F and stir or shake this until it's completely dispersed and then I add 1/4 cup of aloe vera extract and shake again as much as possible to activate the foaming action of the aloe vera extract's Saponins.

I spray the plant until the leaves hang like they need to be watered. Top and bottom of the leaves, all the branches and the top of the soil.

HTH

CC
This is all that I have copied in my notes, but I know there is more. Post more sprays if you got em folks!
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Old 03-25-2013, 06:18 AM #4
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This is a good one. Cootz again of course...

Quote:
RE: Neem Seed Oil

I still highly recommend the use of neem seed oil. Having said that, I bought bag of neem seed meal (aka neem seed cake) and have been making teas with this meal along with kelp meal. The meal contains 1,400ppm of Azadirachtin (same level as Dyna-Gro Neem Seed Oil) as well as the other active ingredients in neem seed products such as triterpenes. More specifically, limonoids such as azadirachtin, salannin, meliantriol, nimbin, nimbidin, meliantriol, deacetylazadirachtinol, salannin, salannol, 3-deacetylsalannin etc.

By not using the oil product specifically, it can also be used on your soils. Especially if you're having problems with gnats, root aphids, etc.

In this instance, the term cake and meal are interchangeable. Neem seed cake/meal is the dried residue after the oil has been pressed from the seeds.

All parts of the neem tree contain the agent Azadiractin (among 60+ others equally important) that provides a defense against molds, nematodes, leaf-eating insects, et al. This includes the leaves, bark, seeds, roots, branches, etc.

The pressing does not remove all of the oil or the active agents. The Azadiractin level of the meal is generally about 1/3 - 1/2 of the PPM level of the oil that was pressed, i.e. if the neem oil tests out at 1500 PPM for Azadiractin then you could figure that the meal/cake would come in at 500 PPM - 750 PPM.

The cake is helpful in any type of organic growing environment. It has a solid NPK profile (if you're one of those who subscribes to that paradigm), a complete micro-nutrient component as well as trace elements, phytohormones (Abscisic acid, Auxins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Gibberellins) Vitamin C, citric acid, saponin, et al. providing improved conditions for the nitrification process, preventingroot rot and other anaerobic-related problems like root aphids, gnats, etc.

The neem seed cake also triggers a plant's defenses through a number of agents it contains resulting in systemic defense against the invasive powdery mildew issues.

The meal/cake can also be used to make an effective tea during those times of the grow/flower cycle where using the neem oil may not be the best option. 1/2 cup of neem seed meal/cake and 1/4 cup of kelp meal along with 1 tsp. of liquid silica into 5 gallons of water and then bubbled/brewed for 18 - 24 hours. This can be used to irrigate the plants as well as applying as a foliar spray.

I'd recommend the neem & karanja seed meals from NeemResource.com - it's organic. It's Fair trade. It's Inexpensive. It's Effective. And the woman who heads this organization is the most informed individual I've ever talked with on the subject of neem tree products in general.

And her products are from India. There's a lot of neem products coming in from China and Africa. That's not necessarily a bad thing. However, the neem tree industry in India goes back several centuries. The tree is part of the worship of several incarnations of the Godhead including Krishna, Ganesha, Vishnu, Shiva, et al. and it's a part of the culture in the production regions and the industry is tightly controlled by the Parker India Group.

For me I consider neem cake as important as my other 'must have' for gardening, i.e. kelp meal, alfalfa meal and rock dusts.
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Old 03-25-2013, 06:28 AM #5
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Cann thanks for posting those up from Cootz. I am new here but i have been reading tons of threads mostly the organic ones and i see that he is highly respected and has tons of knowledge he shares.
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Old 03-25-2013, 07:58 AM #6
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Foilar Spray Components

Aloe Vera
Aloe acts like the other immunity system builders I mentioned earlier. Aloe contains hundreds of beneficial compounds and elements but whats important to our IPM strategy is the saponins and salicylic acid.
Salicylic acid is another signaler of the defense mechanism for plants by kickstarting the production of pathogenesis related proteins.
Saponins act as a great surfactant for which to spread our concoctions across the plants leaves. What a great combination!

Links
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science...9096228870095X
https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/13/8/1599

Wiki Quote
It is involved in the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in which a pathogenic attack on one part of the plant induces resistance in other parts.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salicylic_acid

Silicon
Silicon is what some call the unneeded great nutrient! It aids in thicker stalks, heat tolerance and helps fights pathogens. It seems through my research it was thought silicon formed a barrier around plant surfaces but new research is showing it may be sending signals to the plant to induce resistance to pathogens.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...05.06.034/full
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science...28342001800148

Wiki Quote
Silicon has been shown in university and field studies to improve plant cell wall strength and structural integrity,[64] improve drought and frost resistance, decrease lodging potential and boost the plant's natural pest and disease fighting system.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon

Neem Oil
Neem oil is squeezed from the seeds of the neem tree. Neem oil has the active compound azadirachtin just like the meal but we now use it as a insect deterrent and a fungicide deterrent for the stalks and leaves. With steady application of this neem oil, fungi will never have a chance to settle on your plant leaves.

Wiki Quote
Neem oil also controls black spot, powdery mildew, anthracnose and rust (fungus).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neem_oil

These components make the "base" of a quality foilar spray. They can be used with every spraying. There are other ingredients that could be used as the "base" but this has worked for me and others here on ICMAG. You certainly can use other items but know what you are working with and how to use it.

Next post will have information on "secondary" components that can be added to the "base". These "secondary" components can be added for certain situations and general preventatives. Recipes and instructions will be included.
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Old 03-25-2013, 09:54 PM #7
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Foilar Spray Secondary Components

What I call secondary components consist of meals and other plants that provide compounds and elements that will again deter and or control insects and diseases.

Lavender
Lavender works to repel mites and acts as a mild fungicide. It is best to use fresh flowers from the plant. It would be advantageous to grow this and other medicinal plants in your garden to be able to have access when needed.

Links
https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/se...l;PL2003000190

Thyme
Research shows thymol to be one of the key players in thyme's anti fungal abilities. Another active compound found in thyme carvacrol has shown strong abilities to kill insects and eggs at higher doses.

Links
https://link.springer.com/article/10....P00059?LI=true
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs...urnalCode=ento
https://www.actahort.org/books/344/344_16.htm

Rosemary
Yet another plant that exhibits insecticide and anti fungal properties. Are we surprised yet?

Links
https://www.academicjournals.org/JENE...%20et%20al.pdf

alfalfa
Even alfalfa is known to contain anti fungal compounds. Does this list ever stop!!! Unfortunately I do not have this particular plant in my garden so i use alfalfa meal. The meal is bubbled with water for a day or two then strained and diluted.

Links
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf00072a007

I encourage you to find and use other plants but make sure you research what properties that plant brings to the table and if there are any drawbacks. Dilution rates matter. For example some plants can be used as a herbicide if not diluted correctly.

Foilar Spray Prep

Prepping The Base
Neem Oil 1 tsp to 4 tsp
Silicon 1 tsp to 2 tsp
Aloe Vera 1/4 cup to 1/2 cup
1 gallon water tepid (70f)

Mix the neem oil and silicon in a shot glass or small cup. You want the silicon to emulsify with the neem and the texture should change to a more watery substance.
Add the your neem/silicon mixture and aloe to the 1 gallon of tepid water. You have made the base.

The base all by itself could be sprayed as a foilar and would offer great proactive protection.

Prepping The Secondaries
When possible I recommend using the fresh plant versus products that contains the plants. I have had nothing but stellar responses using fresh plant material. If you can't source fresh material then try finding plants that have the same properties. I would resort to the bottle/box as a last ditch effort.

When using fresh material the preparation usually consists of:
1. Chopping up plant material
2. Place material in 1 gallon water
3. Let soak for no more than 2 day (Do not let material ferment!!)
4. Add 1/2 cup to 1 cup of the strained liquid to your 1 gallon base.
5. Shake the mix as much as you can

Side Note
You can also take the plant material and your completed 1 gallon base, add to a blender, puree, strain and spray. This too work wonders!
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Old 03-25-2013, 10:37 PM #8
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Neo420, got my Hypoaspis miles on the way. Seems like a winner to me!
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Old 03-25-2013, 10:59 PM #9
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where did you order from?
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Old 03-25-2013, 11:33 PM #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Cann View Post
where did you order from?

Dependable vendor

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