It sounds like the soil has become hydrophobic (repelling water on surface instead of drinking) and the water that is making it past the surface is channeling the path of least resistance out the bottom. This can happen by letting the soil dry out too much.
this is a good example:
Adding a surfactant (wetting agent like when foliar spraying such as yucca extract or dish soap) to your water will help it penetrate the soil beneath the surface. Water a little slowly and wait for the soil to absorb it and repeat (a nozzle that spreads the water like rain works great for this) after a few times it will start to drink normal again. Adding a layer of mulch will help loosen the crusting top layer of soil and prevent from reoccurring.
Last season my outdoor plant's top layer of soil crusted on me from top dressing dry fertilizer pellets all season, id just break the top inch or 2 of crust up with my fingers before watering.