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Old 11-02-2018, 05:18 AM #1
RetroGrow
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Lowly Moss-Like Plant Seems to Copy Cannabis

Apparently, Cannabis isn't the only plant that makes THC:
Several hundred million years ago mosses and their kin went one way, evolutionarily speaking, and the lineage of trees and flowering plants went the other. Somehow, in the vast expanse of geologic time that followed, a few members of these distantly related groups in the plant kingdom copied one another in making something of great interest to humans: the psychoactive chemical, or cannabinoid, that gets people high.

The recent discovery of another source of a cannabinoid comes from a plant that is a relative of the mosses called liverwort. One genus of the plant, Radula, boasts a handful of species that produce a chemical that is a lot like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from Cannabis sativa, or marijuana.

Why a liverwort, which lives and reproduces quite differently from a plant like Cannabis, would make this molecule remains a mystery. What we now know, however, is the cannabinoid from liverwort and the one in Cannabis are almost exactly the same and have quite similar effects in the mammalian brain.

The Radula compound has been dubbed perrottetinene, or PET, after Radula perrottetii, one of the few liverwort species that makes it. Although researchers first described perrottetinene in 1994, how it compared with THC in structure and activity in mammalian brains did not become clear until now.
In what may be the only chemical synthesis paper ever to thank incense sellers in its acknowledgments, Jürg Gertsch of the University of Bern and colleagues confirmed the properties of PET that make it similar to THC. Publishing October 24 in Science Advances, the researchers show through a variety of tests that PET from these Radula species looks and acts a lot like THC from Cannabis. “Curiosity-driven research can lead to interesting results,” says Daniele Piomelli, professor of anatomy and neurobiology at the University of California, Irvine, who was not involved in the study. “This is solid work, very credible, showing that this type of liverwort contains compounds that are akin both in structure and pharmaceutical activity to psychoactive cannabinoids in the cannabis plant.”

To establish this strong similarity, the investigators synthesized forms of PET based on the naturally occurring compound. Using cell preparations, the research team checked to see if the PET molecules bound to the same brain receptors in the cell membrane as THC—and they do. They also checked to see if the PETs bound brain proteins that THC doesn’t—they don’t.

The team then examined how PET and THC compare in potency, and found PET to be less potent. They also discovered THC-like effects when PET was administered to mice—the animals responded similarly to both treatments, including moving more slowly and having lower body temperatures.

When the researchers evaluated the effects of PET compared with THC on inflammation pathways in mouse brains, they finally found a difference. Although PET’s psychoactive effects were less potent, it reduced certain molecules associated with inflammation, says study author Michael Schafroth, currently a postdoctoral researcher at The Scripps Research Institute.

In contrast, THC did not tamp down levels of these inflammation-related molecules, called prostaglandins. “These prostaglandins are involved in many processes (such as) memory loss, neuroinflammation, hair loss and vasoconstriction,” he says. That means PET is “highly interesting for medicinal applications, as we can expect fewer adverse effects while still having pharmacologically important effects.” The reduced potency of PET also might put a damper on any interest in the liverwort for recreational use, especially in an era of increasingly loosened cannabis regulation.

Radula samples were available from the incense sellers the authors thanked in their acknowledgments. But scattered online descriptions from people who have tried it to get high suggest limited success. And because liverworts reproduce without using seeds, “the cultivation and reproduction of Radula species containing the cannabinoid might be challenging,” Gertsch says. The pharmaceutical promise of liverwort could mean a higher profile for the modest moss and its kin, known collectively as bryophytes. “To date, bryophytes are a bit neglected in terms of bio-prospecting,” he notes, referring to the search for organisms that might have medicinal value. “I think this is a great example that liverworts can generate natural products of relevance to humans.”

It may already have been relevant to the people who live where these species of Radula occur naturally, which are as far afield as Japan, New Zealand and Costa Rica. There are hints that the Maori people of New Zealand use it as an herbal medicine, although not necessarily for its THC-like properties. Gertsch adds, however, that no serious ethnobotanical or ethnopharmacological research confirms such uses.

With a synthetic means to make this compound now established, the next step will be to investigate it in animal models of inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Gertsch says, directly comparing it with the activity of THC.
https://www.scientificamerican.com/a...UwNDM0OTIxNQS2
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Old 11-02-2018, 06:16 AM #2
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Here is a picture that shows the differences in chemical structure.
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Old 11-02-2018, 06:30 AM #3
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im sure someone will smoke that stuff trying to get high lmao
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Old 11-02-2018, 06:37 AM #4
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im sure someone will smoke that stuff trying to get high lmao
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Old 11-02-2018, 08:38 AM #5
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Once this stuff takes over and replaces cannabis, "Lets get mossy" will be what high schoolers say to each other after school.
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Old 11-02-2018, 09:05 AM #6
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making bonfires of moss after school lol
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Old 11-02-2018, 12:58 PM #7
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When I was a teenager a friend of mine got us smoking moss for a couple of weeks. When you're a teenager you'll smoke anything. I forget what kind it was, he had a book that said what kind to smoke. I can't say it got me very high because I wasn't smoking it for long.

We munched on nutmeg seeds, drank yohimbe tea. The worst was calamus root. That was terrible. It tasted so bad we gagged it down and swallowed it. The Man must have done something to it, put something like ipecac but much worse in it to stop people from getting high. Because after half an hour we started puking. And spent the next 4 hours puking every minute or two. Put the garbage next to the bed and I spent all night on the side of the bed spitting puke into it. That's one of the worst drugs I've ever done.
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Old 11-02-2018, 07:03 PM #8
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That’s nasty, rev! Now I know why you settled and started to grow those beautiful colas! Can we get a moss OG in the future? Ha speaking of moss, the hairs on this (76thaix71afghani)xrks are starting to look like moss...80 days here!! Still got another week or 3 to go!
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Old 11-02-2018, 09:56 PM #9
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That’s nasty, rev!
Honestly it tasted better then some of the ganja that was going around. Our mistake was not letting it cure long enough. I'll bet after 6 months a lot of the harshness mellows and the high gets more clear headed with less couchlock.

They've even started marketing moss terpenes. Check it out:

https://www.fragrantica.com/notes/Oakmoss-39.html

Although that's actually a lichen. Try it once and that's it, you're hooked.

It's not like we were taking bong hits of weird stuff, usually smoking it through tobacco pipes. One thing I remember that I'd recommend is smoking Earl Grey tea. For a while one of my friends was smoking quite a bit of it. Through a tobacco pipe. I don't like Earl Grey as a tea but it's not a bad smoke. Very mellow.

I'll point out that this is the model for how entheogens were originally discovered. Bored, broke teenagers that aren't getting layed enough experimenting with different plants, mushrooms, and stuff they find on the beach in an attempt to get wasted.
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Old 01-15-2019, 06:32 PM #10
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@therevverend , laughing, I remember days like that, banana peels, dry them out, then smoke, it did nothing. Cloves,did not work, molding wheat bread to make lsd, did not work. In the end my buddy and I discovered the cut grass for cash so we can get us real cannabis, that worked.
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