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    CBG breeding and current varieties

    Cannabigerol (CBG) dominant plants are becoming the rage for next season among smokeable/raw hemp flower growers (almost entirely due to the USDA interim rule making most CBD varieties susceptible to testing hot).

    So I want to discuss and compile some information about breeding for CBG varieties that will pass for compliance.

    Firstly some background:

    Identification of a New Chemotype in Cannabis sativa : Cannabigerol - Dominant Plants, Biogenetic and Agronomic Prospects
    -CBG dominant plant first ID'd by Fournier at al, 1987.

    The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa


    Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa
    -showed there were multiple THCAS/CBDAS sequence homologs in individual plants

    Sequence heterogeneity of cannabidiolic- and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-synthase in Cannabis sativa L. and its relationship with chemical phenotype.
    -different synthases have different efficiencies

    A physical and genetic map of Cannabis sativa identifies extensive rearrangements at the THC/CBD acid synthase loci.
    This paper shows (at least for one variety of fiber hemp (Finola) and one marijauna (Purple Kush)) that the fiber-derived linked cannabinoid synthases (CBDAS, THCAS) are very different in their arrangement. This suggests:
    - A lot of derivation once the two gene pools separated.
    -The putative THCAS identified by Kojoma et al, 2006 in hemp are actually CBCAS. Both Purple Kush and Finola had CBCAS.

    The Inheritance of Chemical Phenotype in Cannabis sativa L
    This paper talks about chemotype inheritance and crosses a fiber-dervied CBG variety to a high THC drug variety. in the F2 the CBG segregates, and again produces no detectable THC:

    The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (IV): cannabinoid-free plants.
    This 2009 deMiejer Paper talks about the inheritance of cannabinoid free plants and an alternative CBG producing genotype derived from the USO-31 hemp variety. This variety apparently has two gene knockouts; one that prevents cannabinoid production when homozygous and severly suppresses it in heterozygotes, and another that blocks CBD production causing CBG to accumulate. The USO-31 derived region responsible for CBG accumulation produces extremely pure CBG (99.75% of cannabinoids) with residual CBD (0.25%).

    DeMiejer also has a 2014 book chapter in the "Handbook of Cannabis" that discusses a similar cross using fiber-derived versus a marijuana-derived (high-THC variety that had a CBG variant) CBG gene region. The fiber-derived linked synthase region produce residual amounts of CBD and almost no THC. Whereas the marijuana derived CBG region variant produces residual THC.


    Breeding forward:
    Recently Oregon CBD made their CBG variety announcements on instagram. In their post, they explained how they crossed a marijuana derived CBG variety (that produces THC at about 1:100-200 ratio CBG:THC) with a (probably) hemp derived CBG variety that has a ratio of ~1:27. (you can see their tests here). EDIT: I had originally assumed the opposite where the fibre-derived region in The White was more efficient and less leaky.

    By doing this they have rather cleverly prevented people from producing F2s that will all be compliant (though on a field level the average still would be). Oregon CBD also loves to pretend that you cant use F1 material as breeding material, when in fact F1 material is often the starting point to develop variation in the creation of new lines. I suspect that, because the one of their CBG variants is compliant 1:100-200 ratio plants will emerge easily among the F2 progeny, which would be truebreeding for CBG if these are inbred to F3+. Of course the MTA they have you sign means you aren't even permitted to save seed for on farm use, let alone breed with any of their germplasm, anyway.

    Active THCAS and CBDAS are tightly linked, with residual CBCAS now not thought to contribute to residual THC (though I am not sure where is is coming from then).

    Ultimately, I suspect for those looking to breed for CBG, if you use a CBG gene region that results in high-ratio CBG:THC, you will be able to easily produce a true-breeding, CBG-dominant, THC-compliant hemp variety -with crosses mostly behaving as a simply inherited single locus with some residual THC from something (I am still not sure from where, non-enzymatic conversion or some other minor cannabinoid synthase byproduct?).

    It seems that both fiber-derived and marijuana-derived THCAS/CBDAS regions can result in CBG:THC ratios that range from~1:25 to 1:200, depending on the specific variant. It would be helpful to describe the differential efficiencies of the various Bo variants present in high-CBG varieties. If you start with a lower ratio null allele, you will be bound by the 0.3% limit to a lower total potency (~7.5% for the 1:25, to unachievable high for the very high ratio alleles).

    CBG seed sources:

    CanapaRoma- 8%CBG under 0.1%THC. No MTA. putatively truebreeding for complaint (at about a 1:65 THC:CBG ratio), fiber derived CBG variant.

    Sovereign Fields-$2/seed, unknown specs. MTA required

    HGH seed- 15+% CBG, Matterhorn CBG, $1+/seed. not sure about MTA

    Oregon CBD- 15+% CBG, $1/seed, MTA required

    Dutch Passion- CBG photo and auto

    CannaBiogen- CBG auto?

    European fiber varieties (I am not certain, but these are probably protected by plant variety protection (PVP), meaning you can save seed for on-farm use and breed with them):

    Santhica-27: monecious 1-3% CBG, CBD residual

    Carma - monecious ~3% CBG

    USO-31- monecious. low cannabinoid, some cannabinoid free plants, some CBG dominant plants with very little residual CBD production.

    Please share any relevant information on CBG breeding and seed sources. Thanks!
    Last edited by GrowingHigher; 04-13-2021, 01:11. Reason: Updated/corrected info
    Mycophyte Solutions- Sustainable agricultural consulting, specializing in hemp and plant-fungi interactions.

    "There's a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part! You can't even passively take part! And you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels…upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop! And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all!" -Mario Savio

    #2
    *bites apple*

    Can we get some test results in here? Preferably at least 3 different labs for 1 strain, repeated trials ensure accuracy.

    Eventually we should have stabilized F7s and new P1 hemp populations. I would think some CBD breeders are nearing this but due to the market demand for feminized seeds there seems to be a lack of sexual breeding and mostly reversing.

    How low is 'low cannabinoid' on USO 31? How many generations does it take to get to 15%+ CBG? It seems to have happened rather quick, at least by these claims. Maybe I'm old hat, skeptical, and think this would take longer than it has.

    I got a hemp spam email the other day about claimed 17% CBG seeds, minimum order 300k
    Some people are going to lose money buying "CBG seeds" this year. There's seed conmen around looking for starry dollar sign eyed hemp farmers that don't know anything about cannabis.

    Comment


      #3
      Originally posted by hellfire View Post
      *bites apple*

      Can we get some test results in here? Preferably at least 3 different labs for 1 strain, repeated trials ensure accuracy...

      I got a hemp spam email the other day about claimed 17% CBG seeds, minimum order 300k
      Some people are going to lose money buying "CBG seeds" this year. There's seed conmen around looking for starry dollar sign eyed hemp farmers that don't know anything about cannabis.
      https://oregoncbdseeds.com/compliance/
      https://highgradehempseed.com/produc...ory/cbg-seeds/
      Soverign Fields has COAs posted on their private instagram account
      CanapAromas:

      There are definitely bad actors in the hemp seed industry that will sell you canadian bird seed claimed to be high-cannabinoid varieties, whether CBD, CBG, (or THC for marijuana seeds). But that is why I would also like to compile a list of seed vendors. And while I endorse none specifically, I would at least like to list people with authentic seed.

      Originally posted by hellfire View Post
      Eventually we should have stabilized F7s and new P1 hemp populations. I would think some CBD breeders are nearing this but due to the market demand for feminized seeds there seems to be a lack of sexual breeding and mostly reversing.
      This is one of the points in my first post; To stabilize for a high-CBG ratio only, you would only need to get to F3 lines. Also, not really on subject, but breeding with feminized plants/reversed females is sexual breeding; meiosis occurs, crossing over occurs, there just isn't a Y chromosome involved. All monecious hemp strains are essentially feminized lines with a high enough tendency to hermaphrodite that they will do it without being forced chemically. So, whether using all females with reversals or regular males in a breeding project is irrelevant, other than no hemp farmer in their right mind is planting males in their fields anymore unless they are growing a seed crop.


      Originally posted by hellfire View Post
      How low is 'low cannabinoid' on USO 31?
      US0-31 is a population that has an allele that prevents cannabinoid production when homozygous; as in undetectable, none, 0 cannabinoids. Read the paper "The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (IV): cannabinoid-free plants" that I posted a link to.


      Originally posted by hellfire View Post
      How many generations does it take to get to 15%+ CBG? It seems to have happened rather quick, at least by these claims. Maybe I'm old hat, skeptical, and think this would take longer than it has.
      Total potency is unlinked from cannabinoid ratios. Total potency is a quantitative trait. (Read "A physical and genetic map of Cannabis sativa identifies extensive rearrangements at the THC/CBD acid synthase loci."). When you cross a high- and low- potency variety you will have intermediate progeny. How many generations to get up to 15%+ depends on the starting germplasm. People have been working on this for years. There is some question as to whether all the players worked independently to breed these varieties, or if people are reproducing other people's genetics without permission.
      Last edited by GrowingHigher; 12-09-2019, 10:04.
      Mycophyte Solutions- Sustainable agricultural consulting, specializing in hemp and plant-fungi interactions.

      "There's a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part! You can't even passively take part! And you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels…upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop! And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all!" -Mario Savio

      Comment


        #4
        To follow up: I've grown out some of the Canaparoma CBG. It had 50% germ, and of the 5 plants I grew, one was CBD dominant. The others were all CBG dom. All had a similar habit; that of fiber hemp. Very airy low quality flower.

        Kwik Seed Company also now has a CBG variety they claim is only locked for CBG, not morphology. I have not grown this one yet.
        Mycophyte Solutions- Sustainable agricultural consulting, specializing in hemp and plant-fungi interactions.

        "There's a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part! You can't even passively take part! And you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels…upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop! And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all!" -Mario Savio

        Comment


          #5
          We plunked down for the minimum required purchase from oregoncbd this year and got a few thousand of their the white cbg strain. So far its incredibly vigorous and resistant to mold and insect pressures. Hasn't started flowering yet but I can check back in with you in a couple months to let you know how it goes. From what I understand the cbg line from them won't run hot and produces just cbg, is that anybody else's understanding as well or am I off?

          Comment


            #6
            That is correct rootfingers. Nothing to worry about on the compliance side, even on trimmed flowers. F2s or other attempts at breeding with any of our CBG varieties leads to 25% of the plants not passing compliance testing (a forewarning to anyone buying one of the many F2 knock-offs of our limited 2019 release of White CBG).

            For anyone interested, the gene responsible for CBG accumulation in our varieties is a defective THCAS allele with a SNP at 1064bp.

            Comment


              #7
              Waste of time for me have at it

              Comment


                #8
                Originally posted by rootfingers View Post
                We plunked down for the minimum required purchase from oregoncbd this year and got a few thousand of their the white cbg strain. So far its incredibly vigorous and resistant to mold and insect pressures. Hasn't started flowering yet but I can check back in with you in a couple months to let you know how it goes. From what I understand the cbg line from them won't run hot and produces just cbg, is that anybody else's understanding as well or am I off?
                I imagine you've havested those by now. How did they turn out

                Comment


                  #9
                  Dutch Passion now have two varieties (as well as a THC-V variety I wasn't aware of)
                  CBG-force and auto CBG-force for 15-35 euro/seed claiming ~15%CBG and 1:100 THC:CBG ratios

                  Hemp Direct is selling something called Desert Snow claiming up to 20% and less than 0.3 (I suspect this is from Oregon CBDs work).

                  Hoku hemp has a variety of CBG strains, apparently built off European varieties (Italian and swiss).

                  I have grown the Kwick seed CBG. It was much more resinous than the CannapAroma, but fairly airy, with tall fiber structure. Much more promising, though still only advertised as an 8% CBG plant.



                  Lastly, this is something that has sort of thrown me through a loop on the CBG breeding theory and I would love if someone could explain it to me: the Whistler Farm's Shiatzu Kush clone that is about 1:1 or 2:1, THC:CBG. I would have thought this ratio shouldn't really exist. So clearly other things that I don't understand yet are happening here.
                  Last edited by GrowingHigher; 01-13-2021, 22:53. Reason: Added info
                  Mycophyte Solutions- Sustainable agricultural consulting, specializing in hemp and plant-fungi interactions.

                  "There's a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part! You can't even passively take part! And you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels…upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop! And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all!" -Mario Savio

                  Comment


                    #10
                    Triploids and blockers are in place for sure in many monoecious vars.
                    nice article and post. Thanks for sharing indeed it seems like a fast track development to my sense of understanding. Still let's watch and wait to see what unfolds and stands up to the tests of time and to the repeated tests of science.
                    Happy growing!
                    ULMW

                    Comment


                      #11
                      blue forest farms ? - us based ship world wide

                      Comment


                        #12
                        Originally posted by GrowingHigher View Post
                        Lastly, this is something that has sort of thrown me through a loop on the CBG breeding theory and I would love if someone could explain it to me: the Whistler Farm's Shiatzu Kush clone that is about 1:1 or 2:1, THC:CBG. I would have thought this ratio shouldn't really exist. So clearly other things that I don't understand yet are happening here.
                        We have a couple unique chemotypes like this. They pop up in the F2 populations of functional THCAS crosses with our nonfunctional THCAS (i.e. the Oregon CBD CBG allele). Those in our collection are heterozygotes (functional / nonfunctional), but something else is going on--with the possibilities being a very long list. They do not happen with high enough frequency to make finding the true cause easy to identify. It's a great chemotype and has a unique effect.

                        Comment


                          #13
                          Blue Forest Farm only seems to sell CBD and Manitou seems to not sell seed at all.

                          Here is some more info on Matterhorn CBG, which I just recently learned of. I had wondered where this strain came from:
                          https://swisscannabinoid.ch/products/matterhorn-cbg

                          Thanks for sharing, Seth. Everytime I think I have something figured out, the plant does something unexpected.
                          Mycophyte Solutions- Sustainable agricultural consulting, specializing in hemp and plant-fungi interactions.

                          "There's a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part! You can't even passively take part! And you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels…upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop! And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all!" -Mario Savio

                          Comment


                            #14
                            Here's a little background on "Matterhorn" from a genetic marker perspective. In short, the seeds being sold are an F2. If you saw them growing in a field, it would immediately make sense from a visual perspective--they are all over the place phenotypically and in flower initiation. We determined this by sequencing synthase genes in seedlings and comparing them to what is known. The Matterhorn population contains two separate genes that make CBG production possible; one is a non-functional CBDAS synthase derived from an Italian fiber variety, and the other is the inactive THCAS that my company discovered in 2016 (the basis for all our CBG varieties). This is an email I sent last year to one of the vendors (HGH, iHempx) of this seed. We have since abandoned the utility patent application and published our first overview of its use so that the knowledge can be open source.

                            Click image for larger version

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                            Originally posted by GrowingHigher View Post
                            Blue Forest Farm only seems to sell CBD and Manitou seems to not sell seed at all.

                            Here is some more info on Matterhorn CBG, which I just recently learned of. I had wondered where this strain came from:
                            https://swisscannabinoid.ch/products/matterhorn-cbg

                            Thanks for sharing, Seth. Everytime I think I have something figured out, the plant does something unexpected.

                            Comment


                              #15
                              XX
                              Last edited by GrowingHigher; 04-12-2021, 17:34. Reason: I am unsure how to interpret current data
                              Mycophyte Solutions- Sustainable agricultural consulting, specializing in hemp and plant-fungi interactions.

                              "There's a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part! You can't even passively take part! And you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels…upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop! And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all!" -Mario Savio

                              Comment

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