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Cannabis Related Terms & definitions (advanced fyi)

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    Cannabis Related Terms & definitions (advanced fyi)

    Here are some cannabis related terms/definitions, so to better help us understand each other, and the common language we speak.

    ABA- abscisic acid
    Abaxial- oriented away from the stem meristem; lower surface
    Accessory Cannabinoids- cannabinoids (CBC, CBD, CBN) which probably interact with the primary cannabinoids (THC) to alter their effect
    Accessory Pigment- pigment other then the primary pigment (clorophll) which collects solar energy
    Acclimatize- become adapt to new enviromental conditions
    Achene- a hard-shelled seed encased by a simple thin closed shell
    Adaxial- oriented toward the shoot meristem
    Adnate- attached at the margin
    Adventitous Roots- roots that appear spontaneously from stems and old roots
    Alternate Phyllotaxy- leaves appear singly in a loose staggered spiral along the stem
    Aneuploid- an organism with an unbalanced set of chromosomes (i.e., 2n-1 or 2n+1)
    Anthesis- the time of maturation of a flower
    Anthocyanin Pigment- an accessory pigment, usually red or purple
    Anticlinal- perpendicular to the surface
    Apical- tip or top position
    Arborescent- tree-like
    Asexual Propagation- vegetative reproduction by cloning, producing offspring with the genotype identical to that of the single parent
    Auxins- a class of plant hormones

    Back-crossing- crossing of an offspring with one of the parents to reinforce a parental trait
    Bract- small reduced leaflet in Cannabis that appears below a pair of calyxes
    Bulbous Trichome- small stalkless glandular trichome

    Callus- undifferentiated group of cells, which under proper conditions will differentiate to produce roots and stems
    Calyx- five-part carpel structure of the staminate flower; or, five-part fused tubular sheath surrounding the ovule and pistils of the pistillate flower
    Cambium- layer of cells which divides and differentiates into xylem and phloem
    Cannabaceae- family to which only Cannabis (marijuana) and Humulus (hops) belong
    Cannabinoid- cyclic hydrocarbon which is found only in Cannabis, derived from a terpene molecule and a cyclic acid molecule
    Cannabinoid Profile- ratio and levels of major cannabinoids found in a particular individual or strain of Cannabis
    Cannabis- genus name of marijuana or hemp
    Capitate-sessile Trichome- resin-producing glandular trichome with a stalk
    Capitate-stalked Trichome- resin-producing glandular trichome without a stalk
    "Captan"- a commercial fungicide
    Carotenoid Pigment- an accessory pigment, usually yellow, orange, red or brown
    Carrier- a plant infected with a virus but exhibiting no symptoms due to its high resistance
    CBC- cannabichromene
    CBD- cannabidiol
    CBDV- cannabidiverol
    CBG- cannabigerol
    CBNV- cannabiverol
    CBT- cannabitriol
    CCY- cannabicyclol
    Cellular Cloning- asexual propagation of new individuals from small groups of single cells, as distinct from layers or cuttings
    Centripetally- outward from the center
    Cerebral- pertaining to the mind or head, mental
    Chemotype- a specific chemical phenotype which in Cannabis is usually based on ratios of cannabinoids
    Chemovars- cultivars or races of Cannabis defined by their particular chemical composition
    Chlorosis- yellowing of plant tissues resulting from the breakdown of chlorophyll
    Chromosome- strain of DNA-protein complex in the nucleus of a cell along which genes are found
    Clone- an asexually produced offspring preserving parental genotype
    Colchicine- a dangerous chemical used to induce polyploid mutations in plants
    Cotyledons- seed leaves which are present in the embryo and first appear upon germination
    Critical Daylenght- maximum daylenght which will induce flowering
    Crossing- mating of two organisms
    Crossing Over- switching entire pieces of genetic material between two chromosomes
    Crystaloids- crystalline globules in the cytoplasm
    Cultivar- a variety of plant found only in commercial cultivation
    Cuticle- covering of plant wax on the surface of the epidermis
    Cuttage- rooting a piece of stem (cutting) removed from a parent plant
    Cytokinins- a class of plant growth substances (hormones)

    Dagga- African Cannabis
    Damping-off soil-borne fungus disease which attacks seedlings and young plants
    Decarboxylation- loss of a carboxyl (COOH) group from a molecule
    Decussate Phyllotaxy- leaves appear in opposite pairs along the stem
    Dehiscence- release of pollen from the stamens upon opening of the staminate flower
    Differentiation- (1) process of mixing heterozygous gene pools by crossing to promote variation in the offspring. (2) development by a plant of specialized tissues, e.g., roots, calyxes, pistils
    Dihybrid Cross- a hybrid cross for two traits
    Dioecious- staminate and pistillate organs develop on separate plants
    Diploid- the 2n or vegetative condition where each cell has the usual two sets of homologous chromosomes( in Cannabis 2n=20)
    Disinfectant- a treatment that kills disease organisms on the exterior of the seed or plant
    Distal- oriented away from
    Domesticated- cultvated or spontaneously appearing in a cultivated area
    Dominant Trait- the trait which is expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous gene pair, indicated by a capital letter, i.e., "W" is dominant; "w" is recessive
    Drip Irrigation- irrigation system which delivers water to individual plants in small amounts at regular, frequent intervals

    Ecosystem- community of organisms living interdependently in the physical environment
    Ecotype- a strain of plant adapted to a specific niche in the ecosystem
    Embolism- bubble of air in the transpiration stream of a cutting
    Endosperm- nutrient tissue contained within the seed
    Endothecium- subepidermail layer of the pollen sack wall
    Endozoic- internal
    Epicotyl- stem between the cotyledons and the first pair of true leaves
    Epidermal Layer- outer layer of plant tissue
    Epigamic- not controlled by genes
    Epinasty- downward curling of cotyledons and leaves at night
    Essential Oils- compounds with strong aromas contained in the secreted resins of plants
    Etiolation- growth of a plant in total darkness to increase the chances of root initiation

    F1 Generation- first filial generation, the offspring of two P1 (parent) plants
    F2 Generation- second filial generation, resulting from a cross between two F1 plants
    F1 hybrid- heterozygous first filial generation
    Fertilization- the union of genetic material from the pollen (1n) with genetic material from the ovule (1n), restoring the dipliod condition (2n)
    Fixed Trait- a homozygous trait
    Floral Cluster- group of flowers


    GA3- gibberellic acid
    Gamete- haploid (1n) sex cell of the ovule or pollen, capable of initiating the formation of a new individual by combining with another gamete of the opposite sex
    Ganja- Indian word for marijuana derived from pistillate floral clusters of Cannabis
    Gene- element of the germ plasm controlling the transmission of a hereditary characteristic
    Gene Interaction- the control of a trait by two or more genes
    Gene Linkage- transfer of gene pairs for separate traits together in associated groups instead of assorting independently
    Gene Pool- collection of possible gene combinations
    Genotype- combination of genes present on chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell, which through environmental influences determines the outwardly observable phenotype
    Germ Plasm- genetic material contained within seeds or pollen
    Gibberellin- a class of plant growth hormone
    Girdling- removing a strip of bark or crushing the stem of a plant to restrict the flow of water, nutrients, and plant products
    Glandular Trichome- plant hair which has a secretory function
    GLS- gas-liquid chromatography
    Globoids- drops of oil or resin in the cytoplasm
    Gootee- ancient Chinese air layering technique
    Greenhouse- a structure which offers some environmental control to promote plant growth
    Gross Morphology- general growth form of an organism
    Gross Phenotype- composite phenotype of an organism

    Haploid- condition, as in gametes, when each cell has one-half the usual number of chromosomes found in vegetative cells; abbreviated 1n (in Cannabis 1n=10)
    Hardening-off slow adaptation of indoor or greenhouse plants to an outside environment
    Hashish- a drug formed of resin heads of glandular trichomes shaken or rubbed from floral clusters, pressed together, and shaped
    Heliotropic- sun-loving, turning toward the sun
    Hemp- Cannabis fibers or fiber-producing type of Cannabis
    Herbivory- feeding on plants by animals
    Hermaphrodite- an individual from a dioecious strain of predominantly one sex which develops floral organs of the other sex
    Heteroblastic- variously shaped
    Heterozygous- the condition when the two genes for a trait are not the same on each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes; individuals heterozygous for a trait are indicated by an "Aa" or "aA" notation and are not true-breeding
    Homologous Chromosomes- members of the same chromosome pair
    Homologs- similarly structured chemical compounds
    Homozygous- the condition existing when the genes for a trait are the same on both chromosomes of a homologous pair; individuals homozygous for a trait are indicated by "AA" or "aa" and are true-breeding
    Hormone- plant hormones or growth substances are chemicals produced by the plants in very small quantities which control the growth and development of the plant five or more classes of hormones are recognized and they appear to interact in almost all phases of development
    Hybrid- a heterozygous individual resulting from crossing two separate strains
    Hybrid Vigor- increased vigor in the offspring resulting from the hybridization of two gene pools
    Hybridization- process of mixing differing gene pools by crossing to produce offspring of combined parental characteristics
    Hypocotyl- section of stem arising from the embryo below the cotyledons
    Hypodermal Layer- middle layer of plant tissue

    Incomplete Dominance- neither gene of a pair is dominant
    Indexing- detecting of a virus carrier by grafting tissues or injecting vascular fluids into an uninfected clone
    Inductive Photoperiod- daylength required to induce flowering
    Inflorescence- group of flowers
    Intrusive Growth- growth through a medium
    Isodiametric- having equal diameters

    Kif- Moroccan word for Hashish and Cannabis

    Laticifer- secretory organ containing latex
    Layerage- development of roots on a stem (layer) while it is still attached to and supported nutritionally by the parent plant
    Leach- wash from the soil
    Leafing- removal of leaves
    Lignification- hardening of the stem by the formation of lignin, a tough polymer
    Limbing- removal of lower limbs
    Lipophilic- a chemical environment in which fat-like components are easily soluble
    Lumina- inner cell spaces enclosed by the cell walls

    Manicuring- removing leaves from floral clusters
    Marijuana- Cannabis, originally a Spanish word
    Megaspore- seed
    Meiosis- reduction division of a diploid (2n) cell resulting in two haploid (1n) daughter cells as in pollen and ovule formation
    Meristem- area of a cell division and growth, i.e., shoot tip, root tip, and cambium
    Meristem Pruning- removal of shoot tip to limit height and promote branching
    Methyl- a 1-carbon group
    Micron- one-millionth of a meter
    Microspore- pollen
    Mil- one-thousandth of an inch
    Mitosis- division of a diploid (2n) cell resulting in two diploid (2n) daughter cells as in normal vegetative growth
    Monoecious- staminate and pistillate organs develop on the same plant
    Monohybrid Cross- a hybrid cross for only one trait
    Mutation- an inheritable change in a gene

    Necrosis- death and discoloration of tissue
    Nitrification- conversion by soil organisms of atmospheric nitrogen to a form which can be used by the plant
    Nucellus- tissue within the ovule

    Ontogeny- course of development
    Organelles- structures within a single cell
    Ovule- section of the female flower containing the haploid (1n) gamete which will form a seed upon fertilization

    P1 Generation- first parental generation, the parents crossed to form F1 or F1-hybrid offspring
    Parthenocarpy- the production of seeds without fertilization
    Pathogen- an organism causing a specific disease
    Pedicel- point of attachment of staminate or pistillate calyx
    Pentyl- a 5-carbon group
    Perianth- outer seed coat, displaying seed color and pattern
    Pericarp- protective outer seed covering or shell
    Periclinal- parallel to the surface
    Perisperm- nutrient region of the seed
    pH- a measurement of acidity-alkalinity : 1 is most acid, 14 is most alkaline, and 7 is neutral
    Phenotype- outwardly measurable characteristics of an organism determined by the interaction of the individual genotype with the environment
    Phloem- vascular tissue of the root, stem, and leaf through which water and biosynthetic plant products such as sugars, carbohydrates, and growth substances are translocated
    Photoperiod- lighted portion of daily light cycle
    Photosynthates- products of photosynthesis
    Photosynthesis- formation of carbohydrates by green plants from sunlight, CO2, and H2O
    Phyllotaxy- the pattern of growth and form of leaves along a stem
    Phytotron- an indoor area with extensive environmental controls for the experimental growth of plants
    Pistil- paired female organs for pollen reception made up of a fused stigma and style
    Pistillate- female
    Plasmodesmata- pores in the cell walls between adjoining cells
    Pollination- pollen from a stamen landing on the pistil of a flower
    Polyembryony- the presence of more than one embryo in an ovule
    Polyhybrid Cross- a hybrid cross for more than one trait
    Polymerization- linking of small molecules together into a chain or network
    Polymorphous- variously shaped
    Polypliod- the condition of multiple sets of chromosomes within one cell (e.g., 3n or 4n)
    Primordia- tiny shoots (usually floral) which first appear behind the stipules along the main stalk and limbs
    Propyl- a 3-carbon group
    Protectant- a long-term treatment to kill disease organisms present in the soil around the seed or plant
    Protoplast- cell contents
    Pruning- removal of living tissues such as meristems or small limbs from plants
    Psychoactive- affecting the consciousness or psyche
    Purebred- a homozygous individual resulting from the inbreeding of a strain

    Radicle- embryonic root tip
    Recessive Trait- the trait which is not expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous recessive gene pair but only expressed in a homozygous recessive gene pair
    Recombination- formation in offspring of a new gene pair different from those pairs found in either parent
    Rejuvenation- growth on a mature, flowered plant such that the new growth is juvenile, prefloral limbs
    Retting- the breakdown of tissues and epidermal layer that join fibers into bundles so that the individual fibers are freed
    Roguing- removal of undesirable plants from the population

    Scion- stem shoot tip used in a graft
    Selection- choosing of favorable offspring as parents for future generations
    Senescence- the decline towards death of an organism
    Sessile- attached flush with the surface
    Sex Limited- a trait expressed by only one sex
    Sex Linkage- genes occurring on the sex chromosomes
    Sexual Propagation- reproduction by recombination of genetic material from two parents through the union of two gametes
    Sinsemilla- the phrase sin semilla is Spanish, originating from Mexico, and means literally "without seed"; the English word sinsemilla means mature seedless pistillate marijuana grown by removing male plants to prevent pollination
    Soil Atmosphere- gaseous portion of the soil
    Soil Solution- liquid portion of the soil
    Somatic- pertaining to the physical body
    Sporogenous Tissue- tissue related to the development of spores (pollen)
    Sport- plant or portion of a plant which carries and expresses a spontaneous mutation
    Stamen- male pollen-producing organs consisting of two parts: anther and filament
    Stamenoia- excessive and premature concern on the part of a cultivator that staminate plants might pollinate the precious sinsemilla crop
    Staminate- male, possessing stamens
    Stipule- reduced bractlet on either side of the petiole at the stem and subtending each calyx
    Stock- stem section with roots attached used in a graft
    Stomate- pore on the epidermal surface of a plant which allows the interchange of air and water vapor
    Strain- a line of offspring derived from common ancestors
    Subtends- situated below
    Symplast- continuous cytoplasm shared by several cells
    Symplastic Growth- growth accompanied by the growth of surrounding tissues
    Systemic Roots- roots that appear along the developing root system originating in the embryo

    Tapetum- inner nourishing layer of the pollen sac wall
    Terpene- organic molecule of strong aroma
    Testa- covering surrounding the embryo of the seed
    Tetrahedral- grouped in four or with four sides
    Tetralocular- having four sections as in an anther
    Tetraploid- having four sets of chromosomes (4n) in contrast to the usual diploid (2n) condition
    THC- tetrahydrocannabinol
    THCV- tetrahydrocannabiverol
    TLC- thin-layer chromatography
    Top Mulching- surface dressing of soil with compost or other organic material to supply nutrients, add root space, and reduce water loss by evaporation
    Trace- small area of vascular tissue connecting two like protions of the vascular system such as stem xylem and leaf xylem
    Trellising- method of shape and size alteration through physical restriction of growth (i.e.; tying plant down to a wire frame)
    Trichome- plant hair
    Triploid- having three sets of chromosomes (3n) in contrast to the usual diploid (2n) condition
    True-breeding- homozygous for the particular trait or traits

    Vacuole- space within a cell separate from the cytoplasm

    Whorled Phyllotaxy- three or more limbs appear per node
    Wild- weedy, escaped, naturalized, or indigenous

    Xylem- vascular tissue of the roots, stems, and leaves through which water and nutrients flow upward from the roots

    Authored by og bub
    Last edited by babbit; 09-04-2005, 09:16. Reason: typo


    THANK YOU! This will make a great bookmark in adtion to my legit resource of terms :P -
    here's 1 entry,
    Definition of petiole-
    the leaf stalk, connecting the leaf to a stem or branch
    taken without permission from:



      this should soooooooooo be a sticky..
      Maybe an update would do too


        RIP Hillie


          ....Good info babbit.....

          .....Thread made sticky!
          'It can all start from a seed'


            That's a good setup with the terms, if only we had one for some of these abbreviations. I'm lost as to IMHO or something like and then today I think I saw IHO. Can someone breakdown what these abbreviations are supposed to mean and any others that are used frequently?
            OG Refugee (It's good to be home again...)

            Overgrow da world!

            36 Bagseed Outdoor Guerilla style, '17
            32 Bagseed Outdoor Organic, '14
            ManyManySpliff's & Friend Bagseed Grow, '12
            13 Bagseed Ladies Harvested, '06
            The Purps of '06

            Proud member of the sigpic
            D.S.C.C. - Dirty South Cannabis Cultivators


              IMHO = In My Honest Opinion
              IMO = In My Opinion
              "IHO" sounds like a typo.
              RIP Hillie


                Thanks, IHO was an error.. I was thinking of that IMO, couldn't remember the exact spelling. I appreciate the link though. Thanks a mil!
                OG Refugee (It's good to be home again...)

                Overgrow da world!

                36 Bagseed Outdoor Guerilla style, '17
                32 Bagseed Outdoor Organic, '14
                ManyManySpliff's & Friend Bagseed Grow, '12
                13 Bagseed Ladies Harvested, '06
                The Purps of '06

                Proud member of the sigpic
                D.S.C.C. - Dirty South Cannabis Cultivators


                  you're welcome a mil :smile:
                  RIP Hillie


                    NICE Babbit!

                    also... In my humble opinion



                      the list contains some omissions, mistakes and misunderstandings. Here are some additions, corrections and clarifications:

                      Hemp bears nuts. The seed is found within the nut.

                      A bud in the narrow definition is a certain non-sexual or sexual organ, for you know an unripe shoot or flower.

                      A flower is a staminate or a two-sexual organ.

                      Pistils and nut are enclosed by the bract. The bract is NOT a "small reduced leaflet in Cannabis that appears below a pair of calyxes".

                      Sinsemilla is mostly made up of parthenocarpic bracts. But the narrow definition of parthenocarpy is the development of seedless fruits, in the case of cannabis this was hollow nuts -- not nutless bracts.

                      The calyx is the "skin" of a bud. The calyx is NOT the bract. The staminate calyx' shelter the flower. In the case of hemp which is a dioecious species, one pistillate calyx is found below each bract.

                      As a comparison, pistillate hop (HUMULUS LUPULUS) grows big calyx'. A bunch of them form a cone-shaped fruit. I do not know if hop grows bracts at all. The translucent nut skins resemble the tiger-striped nut skins of hemp. Hop flowers look exactly like hemp flowers except for a rounder shape and slightly smaller size.

                      In monoecious species, say plants with two-sexual flowers, the pistillate parts are the innermost parts of the flower, while the staminate parts surround the pistillate parts.

                      A trichome is a tri-comet, a three-pike. It is not a hair, a thric. C, K and CH are interchangeable. T and TH are not. Practically, a trichome is a hard, sharp needle on a plant. It fights off predators. It is made of one cell and hardened by compounds containing silicon, calcium or carbon. The stinging nettle has trichomes filled with ant-acid. Trichomes of hemp cause the one-way rough feel of the leaves. They are NOT filled with resin and cannabiniods at all, unless you define it that way.

                      Resin glands are cells and inter-cell spaces which produce or accumulate resin.

                      Hemp has resin gland cells called latifers (from latis which means long), long cells within the plant tissue. It also has resin glands on the surface. Starting with one cell each they grow into clusters of 8 to 32 cells when they are finally raised on stalks. One such stalk is made of several epidermal cells and is soft, not hard like a trichome. The resin glands put resin into a ballon in front of the cells. When touched by anything, for instance by a predator, the ballon breaks and spills the resin fluid. When the ballon is left intact on the dying, drying plant, the resin hardens.

                      Last edited by Grasso; 06-15-2007, 15:00.



                        taken from :


                        /kayliks/ (also calix)

                        • noun (pl. calyces /kayliseez/ or calyxes) 1 Botany the sepals of a flower, forming a protective layer around a flower in bud. 2 Zoology a cup-like cavity or structure.

                        — ORIGIN Greek kalux ‘case of a bud, husk’.
                        A calyx is not a "tubular sheath" or whatever pseudo-scientific non-sense. Truth is your friend.



                          I don't know if this thread is open to suggestions but it would be cool if you added a definition for the s1 generation. Personally, I was confused about this for awhile.

                          From what I understand the s1 generation is the offspring that are created when a single plant hermies and pollinates itself. Is that right?
                          Originally posted by dwtc
                          smells like a skunk got beat to death by lemons.
                          mentholated dead whale dipped in lemon gasoline



                            could be, dyren. I would like to point out that Mack's Feed F1 is the filial generation (off-spring or children in slack tongue) of Mack's Feed but not Mack's Feed itself.

                            The given-above definition of achene is not very descriptive. Simply said an achene is a nut as for example an almond complete with its hard shell. The fruit flesh of the apricot is called "accessory fruit" or "sweet paraphernalia".



                              You may want to add :

                              - "Cubing" (see "Backcrossing"), the third backcross, cross fertilization between the second backcross and the same parent used in the first and second backcross.

                              - "Lamina", the expanded portion of a leaf.

                              - "Leaflet", unit of a compound leaf.

                              - "Trifoliate", leaves showing three leaflets, not to be confused with whorled leaf arrangement.

                              - "Inbreeding" ("linebreeding"), continued breeding of closely related individuals, usually to preserve specific traits within a line.

                              - "Intercrossing", cross fertilization between related parent plants. Synonym for "biparental inbreeding", as opposed to "uniparental inbreeding" ("Selfing").

                              - "Outcrossing", cross fertilization between totally unrelated parent plants, introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line.

                              - "Selfing" ("self-fertilization"), fertilization in which the two gametes are from the same individual. Usually a female parent plant is forced to produce a few male flowers for this.

                              - "S1", designates the generation obtained by selfing the parent plant,

                              - "S2" designates the generation obtained by selfing the S1 plant, etc.

                              - "Squaring" (see "Backcrossing"), the second backcross, cross fertilization between the first backcross and the same parent plant used in the first backcross.

                              You may want to be more precise about :

                              - "Backcrossing", cross fertilization between a hybrid and one of its parents or one individual genetically identical to one of its parents. Backcrossing is a form of biparental inbreeding.

                              - "F2" : progeny produced by inbreeding the first filial generation.
                              Your definition is too vague. The result of a cross between two F1 can be a new F1, if each parent plant is a different cross.

                              We could add many more.